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Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems: Applications, Analysis, and Design from Theory to Practice

Ultra-Capacitors in Power Conversion Systems: Applications, Analysis, and Design from Theory to Practice

Petar J. Grbovic

ISBN: 978-1-118-69363-6 October 2013 Wiley-IEEE Press 336 Pages


Ultra-capacitors, used as short-term energy storage devices, are growing in popularity especially in the transportation and renewable energy sectors. This text provides an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of ultra-capacitor theory, modeling and module design from an application perspective, focusing on the practical aspects of power conversion and ultra-capacitor integration with power electronics systems.

Key features: 

  • clearly explains the theoretical and practical aspects of ultra-capacitor, analysis, modelling and design 
  • describes different power conversion applications such as variable speed drives, renewable energy systems, traction, power quality, diesel electric hybrid applications 
  • provides detailed guidelines for the design and selection of ultra-capacitor modules and interface dc-dc converters
  • includes end-of-chapter exercises and design examples

This is an essential reference for power electronics engineers and professionals wanting to expand their knowledge of advanced ultra-capacitor energy storage devices and their application in power conversion. It is also a valuable resource  for industrial design engineers as well as academics and advanced students in power electronics who want to develop their understanding about this highly topical subject.

Preface ix

1 Energy Storage Technologies and Devices 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Direct Electrical Energy Storage Devices 3

1.3 Indirect Electrical Energy Storage Technologies and Devices 11

1.4 Applications and Comparison 19

2 Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage Devices 22

2.1 Background of Ultra-Capacitors 22

2.2 Electric Double-Layer Capacitors—EDLC 24

2.3 The Ultra-Capacitor Macro (Electric Circuit) Model 27

2.4 The Ultra-Capacitor’s Energy and Power 42

2.5 The Ultra-Capacitor’s Charge/Discharge Methods 47

2.6 Frequency Related Losses 59

2.7 The Ultra-Capacitor’s Thermal Aspects 65

2.8 Ultra-Capacitor High Power Modules 72

2.9 Ultra-Capacitor Trends and Future Development 74

2.10 Summary 76

3 Power Conversion and Energy Storage Applications 78

3.1 Fundamentals of Static Power Converters 78

3.2 Interest in Power Conversion with Energy Storage 84

3.3 Controlled Electric Drive Applications 90

3.4 Renewable Energy Source Applications 102

3.5 Autonomous Power Generators and Applications 113

3.6 Energy Transmission and Distribution Applications 121

3.7 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Applications 128

3.8 Electric Traction Applications 131

3.9 Summary 145

4 Ultra-Capacitor Module Selection and Design 149

4.1 Introduction 149

4.2 The Module Voltage Rating and Voltage Level Selection 152

4.3 The Capacitance Determination 164

4.4 Ultra-Capacitor Module Design 173

4.5 The Module's Thermal Management 189

4.6 Ultra-Capacitor Module Testing 207

4.7 Summary 214

5 Interface DC–DC Converters 216

5.1 Introduction 216

5.2 Background and Classification of Interface DC–DC Converters 216

5.3 State-of-the-Art Interface DC–DC Converters 223

5.4 The Ultra-Capacitor’s Current and Voltage Definition 229

5.5 Multi-Cell Interleaved DC–DC Converters 231

5.6 Design of a Two-Level N-Cell Interleaved DC–DC Converter 254

5.7 Conversion Power Losses: A General Case Analysis 295

5.8 Power Converter Thermal Management: A General Case Analysis 299

5.9 Summary 313

References 314

Index 317