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Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects

Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects

C. Susan Weiler (Editor), Polly A. Penhale (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66794-1

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

257 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 62.

The discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole and the associated increase in the transmission of ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) has resulted in an explosion of research activity, in both the physical and the biological sciences. This volume consolidates the wide range of research conducted in Antarctica since the late 1980s in the fields of ultraviolet radiation climatology and biological effects, and provides an overview of research efforts by scientists from a number of Antarctic research programs. The information presented should benefit new and established researchers as well as those outside the field who are interested in learning more about this area. We hope that readers will obtain an understanding of the research that has been conducted to date and an appreciation for the amount of research still needed in order to evaluate the potential climatological and biological impacts of enhanced ultraviolet radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion.

The Antarctic Research Series: Statement of Objectives
Board of Associate Editors ix

Preface
C. Susan Weiler and Polly A. Penhale xi

Effects of Ozone Depletion on the Ultraviolet Radiation Environment at the Australian
Stations in Antarctica
C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, D. W. Tomlinson, and D. L. Lugg 1

The United States National Science Foundation's Polar Network for Monitoring
Ultraviolet Radiation
Charles R. Booth, Timothy B. Lucas, John H. Morrow, C. Susan Weiler, and Polly A. Penhale 17

Radiation Amplification Factors: Improved Formulation Accounts for Large Increases in
Ultraviolet Radiation Associated with Antarctic Ozone Depletion
Charles R. Booth and Sasha Madronich 39

Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance at Palmer Station, Antarctica
John E. Frederick and Dan Lubin 43

A Method for Mapping Antarctic Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Using Multispectral
Satellite Imagery
Dan Lubin, Paul Ricchiazzi, Catherine Gautier, and Robert H. Whritner 53

Role of Clouds and Ozone on Spectral Ultraviolet-B Radiation and Biologically Active
UV Dose Over Antarctica
Catherine Gautier, Gang He, Shiren Yang, and D. Lubin 83

Ultraviolet Tolerance Mechanisms in Antarctic Marine Organisms
Deneb Karentz 93

Ultraviolet Radiation Effects on Cyanobacteria: Implications for Antarctic Microbial Ecosystems
Warwick F. Vincent and Antonio Quesada 111

Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Photosynthesis of Phytoplankton in the Vicinity of
McMurdo Station, Antarctica
Patrick J. Neale, Michael P. Lesser, and John J. Cullen 125

The Response of Antarctic Phytoplankton to Ultraviolet Radiation: Absorption,
Photosynthesis, and Taxonomic Composition
Maria Vernet, Eric A. Brody, Osmund Holm-Hansen, and B. Greg Mitchell 143

Marine Primary Production Under the Influence of the Antarctic Ozone Hole: Icecolors '90
Barbara B. Prezelin, Nicholas P. Boucher, and Ray C. Smith 159

The Impact of Ultraviolet Radiation on Phaeocystis and Selected Species of Antarctic
Marine Diatoms
A. T. Davidson and H. J. Marchant 187

Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Antarctic Marine Phytoplankton Photosynthesis
With Particular Attention to the Influence of Mixing
E. Walter Helbling, Virginia Villafane, and Osmund Holm-Hansen 207

Ultraviolet Radiation and Bottom-Ice Algae: Laboratory and Field Studies From
McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
K. G. Ryan and D. Beaglehole 229

Potential Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Antarctic Primary Terrestrial Colonizers:
Cyanobacteria, Algae, and Cryptogams
D. D. Wynn-Williams 243