About the Author
JOHN C. CARMODY is an architect and the Associate Director of the Underground Space Center at the University of Minnesota. He received his Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Minnesota. His major research interests include the planning, design, and construction of underground facilities with a particular emphasis on the psychological effects on people in enclosed environments. His other research interests include energy-efficient building design, building technology, and life safety in buildings. Mr. Carmody has co-authored several books with Raymond L. Sterling including Earth Sheltered Housing Design, Underground Building Design, and Earth Sheltered Residential Design Manual. RAYMOND L. STERLING is Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering and Director of the Underground Space Center at the University of Minnesota. He received his Ph.D and M.S. from the the University of Minnesota in Civil Engineering and Geological Engineering, respectively. His principal fields of interest include underground construction, underground space utilization, rock mechanics, and energy use in buildings. He has co-authored several books with John C. Carmody on underground space development. He is currently Chairman of the U.S. National Committee on Tunnelling Technology of the National Research Council, and he holds the Shimizu Professorship in Civil and Mineral Engineering at the University of Minnesota.