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Understanding Microwaves



Understanding Microwaves

Allan W. Scott

ISBN: 978-0-471-74533-4 June 2005 560 Pages

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A complete and accessible introduction to the important field of microtechnology. Avoiding complex mathematics, it covers all the pertinent microwave terminology, devices, systems and subsystems in order to facilitate an understanding of how everything fits together to create communications, navigation and radar equipment. Packed with illustrations as well as extensive exercises and answers.

1. A Survey of Microwave Systems and Devices.

1.1 The Relationship of Microwaves to Other Electronic Equipment.

1.2 Microwave Systems.

1.3 The Microwave System.

1.4 Why Microwave Devices are Needed.

1.5 Basic Microwave System Design.

1.6 Microwave Transmission Lines.

1.7 Signal Control Components.

1.8 Semiconductor Amplifiers and Oscillators.

1.9 Microwave Tubes.

1.10 Low Noise Microwave Receivers.

1.11 Microwave Antennas.

Annotated Bibliography.


2. Microwave Fields.

2.1 Electric and Magnetic Fields.

2.2 Electromagnetic Waves.

2.3 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves.

2.4 Microwaves in Transmission Lines.

2.5 Skin Depth.

Annotated Bibliography.


3. Microwave Power--dB and dBm.

3.1 Microwave Power.

3.2 dB Terminology.

3.3 dBm Terminology.

3.4 Equipment for Measuring Microwave Power .

Annotated Bibliography.


4. Insertion Loss, Gain, and Return Loss.

4.1 Insertion Loss.

4.2 Insertion Loss of Components in Cascade.

4.3 Gain.

4.4 Cascaded Insertion Loss and Gain.

4.5 Mismatches and Return Loss.

4.6 Alternative Ways of Specifying Reflected Power.

4.7 S-Parameters.

4.8 Equipment for Measuring Insertion Loss and Return Loss.

Annotated Bibliography.


5. Matching with the Smith Chart.

5.1 Derivation of the Smith Chart.

5.2 Plotting Mismatches on the Smith Chart.

5.3 Matching Calculations with the Smith Chart.

5.4 Moving Toward the Load.

5.5 Lumped Inductance in Series.

5.6 Matching Elements in Parallel.

5.7 Matching Stubs.

5.8 Quarter-Wave Transformer.

5.9 Lumped Elements in Combination.

5.10 Selecting the Best matching Technique.

Annotated Bibliography.



6. Microwave Transmission Lines.

6.1 Comparison of Transmission Lines.

6.2 Guide Wavelength and Characteristic Impedance.

6.3 Coaxial Cable.

6.4 Waveguide.

6.5 Stripline and Microstrip.

6.6 Connectors and Adapters.

Annotated Bibliography.


7. Microwave Signal Control Components.

7.1 Microwave Semiconductors.

7.2Microwave Ferrites.

7.3 Terminations.

7.4 Directional Couplers.

7.5 Combiners.

7.6 Isolators and Circulators.

7.7 Filters.

7.8 Attenuators.

7.9 Switches.

7.10 Phase Shifters.

7.11 Detectors.

Annotated Bibliography.


8. Microwave Semiconductor Amplifiers.

8.1 Amplifier Performance Characteristics.

8.2 Types of Microwave Semiconductor Amplifiers.

8.3 Bipolar Transistors.

8.4 Field-Effect Transistors.

8.5 HEMTs.

8.6 Transistor Packaging and Mounting.

8.7 S-Parameters.

8.8 Transistor Biasing and Matching.

8.9 IMPATT Amplifiers.

Annotated Bibliography.


9. Microwave Oscillators.

9.1 Oscillator Principles.

9.2 Oscillator Performance Requirements.

9.3 Fixed-Tuned and Mechanically Tuned Oscillators.

9.4 Electronically Tuned Oscillators.

9.5 Harmonic Multipliers.

9.6 Phase-Locked Oscillators.

9.7 Up-converters.

Annotated Bibliography.


10. Low-Noise Receivers.

10.1 The Significance of Low-Noise Receivers.

10.2 Sources of Noise.

10.3 Noise Units.

10.4 Mixers.

10.5 Low-Noise Transistors.

10.6 Parametric Amplifiers.

Annotated Bibliography.


11. Microwave Integrated Circuits.

11.1 Types of Microwave Integrated Circuits.

11.2 Hybrid Microwave Integrated Circuits.

11.3 Microstrip Materials and Design.

11.4 Microstrip Circuit Elements.

11.5 Components Added after Microstrip Fabrication.

11.6 Mounting and Packaging.

11.7 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits.

Annotated Bibliography.


12. Microwave Tubes.

12.1 Advantages and Disadvantages.

12.2 Comparison.

12.3 Gridded Tubes.

12.4 Klystrons.

12.5 Traveling Wave Tubes.

12.6 Crossed-Field Amplifiers.

12.7 Magnetrons.

12.8 High Power Microwave Tubes.

Annotated Bibliography.


13. Microwave Antennas.

13.1 Requirements.

13.2 Types.

13.3 Arrays.

13.4 Parabolic.

13.5 Phased Array.

Annotated Bibliography.



14. Introduction to Microwave Systems.

14.1 Spectrum Analysis of Electronic Signals.

14.2 Communication System Signals.

14.3 Signal-to-Noise Requirements.

14.4 Pulse Code Modulation.

14.5 Baseband Signals.

14.6 Transmission Systems.

14.7 Modulation.

14.8 Carrier Modulation with Digital Baseband Signals.

Annotated Bibliography.


15. Microwave Relay.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Block Diagrams.

15.3 Antennas.

15.4 Path Loss Calculations.

15.5 Diversity Systems.

15.6 Diffraction and Troposcatter Systems.

15.7 Wireless Local Area Networks.

Annotated Bibliography.


16. Satellite Communications.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Path Loss Calculations (ERP and G/T).

16.3 International Satellites.

16.4 Domestic Satellites.

16.5 Ship-to-Shore Communication by Satellite.

16.6 Direct Broadcast Satellites.

16.7 Comparison of Communication Satellites.

16.8 Remote-Sensing Satellites.

Annotated Bibliography.


17. Radar Systems.

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Velocity Measurement.

17.3 Range Measurement.

17.4 Combined Range and Velocity Measurement.

17.5 Angle Measurement.

17.6 Techniques to Improve Angular Resolution.

17.7 Phased Array Radar.

17.8 Block Diagrams.

17.9 The Radar Equation.

Annotated Bibliography.


18. Electronic Warfare Systems.

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Stealth.

18.3 Antiradiation Missiles.

18.4 Chaff and Decoys.

18.5 Noise Jamming.

18.6 Deceptive Jamming.

18.7 Electronic Counter-Countermeasures.

Annotated Bibliography.


19. Navigation and Other Microwave Systems.

19.1 Global Positioning System.

19.2 Cellular Telephones.

19.3 Microwave Ovens.

19.4 Medical Applications of Microwaves.

19.5 Scientific Applications of Microwaves.

Annotated Bibliography.


Exercise Answers.