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Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 7th Edition

Johnmarshall Reeve

ISBN: 978-1-119-36765-9 January 2018 560 Pages

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Description

The past ten years have seen an explosion of useful research surrounding human motivation and emotion; new insights allow researchers to answer the perennial questions, including "What do people want?" and "Why do they want what they want?" By delving into the roots of motivation, the emotional processes at work, and the impacts on learning, performance, and well-being, this book provides a toolbox of practical interventions and approaches for use in a wide variety of settings.

In the midst of the field's "golden age," there has never been a better time to merge new understanding and practical application to improve people’s lives. Useful in schools, the workplace, clinical settings, health care, sports, industry, business, and even interpersonal relationships, these concepts are profoundly powerful; incorporated into the state-of-the-art intervention programs detailed here, they can enhance people's motivation, emotion, and outlook while answering the core questions of any human interaction.

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Preface iii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

What Is Motivation? Why Is It Important? 2

Motivational Science 4

Two Perennial Questions 5

What Causes Behavior? 5

Why Does Behavior Vary in Its Intensity? 7

Subject Matter 7

Internal Motives 8

External Events and Social Contexts 9

Motivation versus Influence 10

Expressions of Motivation 10

Behavior 10

Engagement 11

Psychophysiology 12

Brain Activations 12

Self-Report 13

Framework to Understand Motivation and Emotion 13

Ten Unifying Themes 14

Motivation and Emotion Benefit Adaptation and Functioning 14

Motivation and Emotion Direct Attention 15

Motivation and Emotion Are “Intervening Variables” 16

Motives Vary Over Time and Contribute into the Ongoing Stream of Behavior 16

Types of Motivations Exist 17

We Are Not Always Consciously Aware of the Motivational Basis of Our Behavior 18

Motivation Study Reveals What People Want 19

To Flourish, Motivation Needs Supportive Conditions 19

When Trying to Motivate Others, What Is Easy to Do Is Rarely What Works 20

There Is Nothing So Practical as a Good Theory 21

Summary 21

CHAPTER 2 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 24

Philosophical Origins of Motivational Concepts 25

Grand Theories 26

Will 26

Instinct 26

Drive 28

Rise of the Mini-Theories 33

Active Nature of the Person 34

Cognitive Revolution 35

Socially Relevant Questions 35

Contemporary Era 37

The 1990s Reemergence of Motivation Study 38

Brief History of Emotion Study 40

Conclusion 41

Summary 42

Readings for Further Study 43

CHAPTER 3 THE MOTIVATED AND EMOTIONAL BRAIN 44

Motivation, Emotion, and Neuroscience 46

Day-to-Day Events Activate Specific Brain Structures 46

Activated Brain Structures Generate Specific Motivations and Emotions 47

Neural Basis of Motivation and Emotion 47

Cortical Brain 47

Subcortical Brain 48

Bidirectional Communication 48

Individual Brain Structures Involved in Motivation and Emotion 49

Subcortical Brain Structures 50

Cortical Brain Structures 59

Hormones 65

Summary 67

Readings for Further Study 68

PART I NEEDS 69

CHAPTER 4 PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS 71

Need 72

Three Types of Needs 72

Fundamentals of Regulation 74

Physiological Need 75

Psychological Drive 75

Homeostasis 75

Negative Feedback 76

Multiple Inputs/Multiple Outputs 76

Intraorganismic Mechanisms 77

Extraorganismic Mechanisms 77

Homeostatic Mechanism 77

Thirst 78

Physiological Regulation 79

Environmental Influences 80

Hunger 81

Short-Term Appetite 81

Long-Term Energy Balance 82

Environmental Influences 84

Self-Regulatory Influences 85

Weight Gain and Obesity 86

Comprehensive Model of Hunger 87

Sex 88

Physiological Regulation 88

Facial Metrics 90

Sexual Scripts 93

Sexual Orientation 94

Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation 94

Summary 96

Readings for Further Study 97

CHAPTER 5 EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND INTERNALIZATION 98

Extrinsic Motivation 100

Incentives and Consequences 100

Incentives 101

Reinforcers 101

Managing Behavior 102

Consequences 103

Hidden Costs of Reward 106

Intrinsic Motivation 107

Intrinsic Motivation versus Extrinsic Motivation 108

Expected and Tangible Rewards 111

Implications 111

Benefits of Extrinsic Motivation 111

Cognitive Evaluation Theory 112

Two Examples of Controlling and Informational Events 113

Types of Extrinsic Motivation 115

External Regulation 117

Introjected Regulation 117

Identified Regulation 117

Integrated Regulation 118

Internalization and Integration 118

Motivating Others on Uninteresting Activities 119

Amotivation 120

Summary 121

Readings for Further Study 122

CHAPTER 6 PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS 123

Psychological Needs 124

Organismic Psychological Needs 125

Benefits of Need Satisfaction 125

Need Frustration 127

Autonomy 128

Supporting Autonomy 129

The Conundrum of Choice 134

Benefits from Autonomy Support 135

Giving and Receiving Autonomy Support 136

Competence 136

Optimal Challenge 137

Flow 137

Structure 139

Failure Tolerance 141

Relatedness 142

Involving Relatedness 143

Satisfying Relatedness 143

Supporting Relatedness 144

Communal and Exchange Relationships 145

Benefits from Relatedness Need Satisfaction 146

Putting it All Together: Relationships and Social Contexts that Support Psychological Need

Satisfaction 146

Engagement 147

What Makes for a Good Day? 147

Vitality 149

Summary 149

Readings for Further Study 150

CHAPTER 7 IMPLICIT MOTIVES 152

Implicit Motives 154

Acquired Needs 155

Social Needs 155

How Implicit Motives, as Acquired Psychological Needs, Motivate Behavior 158

Achievement 159

Origins of the Need for Achievement 160

Atkinson’s Model 161

Achievement for the Future 163

Dynamics-of-Action Model 163

Conditions That Involve and Satisfy the Need for Achievement 165

Affiliation 166

Duality of Affiliation Motivation 167

Conditions That Involve the Affiliation and Intimacy Duality 167

Conditions That Satisfy the Affiliation Need 168

Power 169

Conditions That Involve and Satisfy the Need for Power 170

Goal Pursuit and Perspective Taking 172

Is the Implicit Power Motive Bad? 172

Leadership Motive Pattern 172

Compassionate Leadership Profile 173

Four Additional Social Needs 175

Summary 175

Readings for Further Study 176

PART II COGNITIONS 177

CHAPTER 8 GOAL SETTING AND GOAL STRIVING 179

Cognitive Springs to Action 180

Plans 181

Corrective Motivation 183

Discrepancy 183

Discrepancy, Emotions, and Feelings 184

Two Types of Discrepancy 185

Goal Setting 186

Goal–Performance Discrepancy 186

Difficult, Specific, and Congruent Goals Enhance Performance 187

Feedback 189

Criticisms 190

Long-Term Goal Setting 192

From Where Do Goals Come? 192

Goal Striving 193

Mental Simulations 193

Implementation Intentions 194

Goal Disengagement 198

Summary 200

Readings for Further Study 201

CHAPTER 9 MINDSETS 202

Mindset 203

Mindset 1: Deliberative–Implemental 203

Deliberative Mindset 205

Implemental Mindset 205

Downstream Consequences of the Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets 206

Mindset 2: Promotion–Prevention 206

Promotion Mindset 207

Prevention Mindset 208

Different Definitions of Success and Failure 208

Different Goal-Striving Strategies 209

Ideal Self-Guides and Ought Self-Guides 210

Regulatory Fit Predicts Strength of Motivation and Well-Being 211

Mindset 3: Growth-Fixed 211

Fixed Mindset 212

Growth Mindset 212

Meaning of Effort 212

Origins of Fixed-Growth Mindsets 214

Different Fixed-Growth Mindsets Lead to Different Achievement Goals 215

Achievement Goals 217

Cognitive Dissonance 221

Dissonance-Arousing Situations 222

Motivational Processes Underlying Cognitive Dissonance 224

Self-Perception Theory 224

Summary 225

Readings for Further Study 226

CHAPTER 10 PERSONAL CONTROL BELIEFS 227

Motivation to Exercise Personal Control 228

Two Kinds of Expectancy 229

Perceived Control: Self, Action, and Control 230

Coping with Failure 230

Self-Efficacy 231

Sources of Self-Efficacy 233

Self-Efficacy Effects on Behavior 235

Empowerment 237

Empowering People: Mastery Modeling Program 238

Mastery Beliefs 239

Ways of Coping 239

Mastery versus Helplessness 239

Learned Helplessness 240

Learning Helplessness 241

Application to Humans 242

Components 243

Helplessness Effects 244

Helplessness and Depression 245

Attributions and Explanatory Style 246

Reactance Theory 249

Expectancy–Value Model 250

Value 251

Value Interventions 252

Summary 252

Readings for Further Study 253

CHAPTER 11 THE SELF AND ITS STRIVINGS 255

Two Views of Self 256

Self-as-Object 257

Self-as-Agent 257

The Problem with Self-Esteem 258

Self-Concept 259

Self-Schemas 260

Motivational Properties of Self-Schemas 260

Consistent Self 261

Self-Verification versus Self-Concept Change 262

Why People Self-Verify 263

Possible Selves 263

Identity 266

Roles 267

Connections to Social Groups 267

Situations Make Specific Identities Salient 267

Agency 268

Self as Action and Development from Within 268

True Self? 269

Self-Concordance 270

Intrinsic Goals and Extrinsic Goals 271

Self-Regulation 273

Forethought through Reflection 273

Developing More Competent Self-Regulation 274

Self-Control 275

Is the Capacity to Exert Self-Control Beneficial to a Successful Life? 279

Summary 279

Readings for Further Study 280

PART III EMOTIONS 283

CHAPTER 12 NATURE OF EMOTION: SIX PERENNIAL QUESTIONS 285

Six Perennial Questions 286

What is an Emotion? 287

Definition 288

Relation between Emotion and Motivation 290

What Causes an Emotion? 291

Two-Systems View 292

Chicken-and-Egg 293

What Ends an Emotion? 294

How Many Emotions are There? 294

Biological Perspective 294

Cognitive Perspective 296

Reconciliation of the Numbers Issue 297

What Good are the Emotions? 299

Coping Functions 299

Social Functions 300

Why We Have Emotions 302

Can We Control Our Emotions? 303

Emotion Regulation Strategies 304

What is the Difference Between Emotion and Mood? 306

Everyday Mood 306

Positive Affect 308

Summary 310

Readings for Further Study 311

CHAPTER 13 ASPECTS OF EMOTION 313

Biological Aspects of Emotion 314

James–Lange Theory 315

Contemporary Perspective 315

Brain Activity Activates Individual Emotions 317

Facial Feedback Hypothesis 318

Cognitive Aspects of Emotion 324

Appraisal 324

Complex Appraisal 327

Appraisal as a Process 329

Emotion Differentiation 330

Emotion Knowledge 331

Attributions 332

Emotions Affect Cognition 334

Social Aspects of Emotion 334

Social Interaction 334

Social Sharing of Emotion 335

Summary 337

Readings for Further Study 338

CHAPTER 14 INDIVIDUAL EMOTIONS 339

Basic Emotions 340

Fear 341

Anger 342

Disgust 343

Contempt 344

Sadness 345

Emotional Preparation for Threat and Harm 346

Joy 346

Interest 347

Emotional Preparation for Motive Involvement and Satisfaction 348

Self-Conscious Emotions 348

Shame 348

Guilt 350

Embarrassment 351

Pride 352

Triumph 352

Interrelations among Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, Pride, and Hubris 353

Cognitively Complex Emotions 353

Envy 353

Gratitude 355

Disappointment and Regret 356

Hope 357

Schadenfreude 357

Empathy 358

Compassion 359

Summary 360

Readings for Further Study 361

PART IV APPLIED CONCERNS 363

CHAPTER 15 GROWTH MOTIVATION AND POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 365

Holism and Positive Psychology 367

Holism 368

Positive Psychology 368

Self-Actualization 368

Hierarchy of Human Needs 369

Encouraging Growth 371

Actualizing Tendency 371

Organismic Valuing Process 372

Emergence of the Self 373

Conditions of Worth 374

Conditional Regard as a Socialization Strategy 376

Fully Functioning Individual 378

Organismic Integration 379

Humanistic Motivational Phenomena 379

Causality Orientations 379

Growth-Seeking versus Validation Seeking 380

Relationships 381

Freedom to Learn 382

Self-Definition and Social Definition 382

Problem of Evil 383

Positive Psychology 385

Happiness and Well-Being 385

Eudaimonic Well-Being 387

Optimism 388

Meaning 389

Positivity 390

Mindfulness 391

Interventions 391

Cultivating Hope 392

Cultivating Compassion 392

Criticisms 394

Summary 395

Readings for Further Study 396

CHAPTER 16 UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION 397

Psychodynamic Perspective 398

Psychoanalytic Becomes Psychodynamic 399

Dual-Instinct Theory 400

Do the Id and Ego Actually Exist? 401

Contemporary Psychodynamic Theory 402

The Unconscious 403

Freudian Unconscious 403

Adaptive Unconscious 404

Implicit Motivation 406

Priming 407

Psychodynamics 408

Repression 409

Suppression 409

Terror Management Theory 411

Ego Psychology 412

Ego Development 412

Ego Defense 413

Ego Effectance 415

Object Relations Theory 416

Criticisms 419

Summary 420

Readings for Further Study 421

CHAPTER 17 INTERVENTIONS 423

Applying Principles of Motivation and Emotion 424

Explaining Motivation and Emotion 424

Predicting Motivation and Emotion 425

Solving Motivational and Emotional Problems 425

Practice Problems 426

Three State-of-the-Art Interventions 428

Preface 428

Intervention 1: Satisfying Psychological Needs 428

Intervention 2: Increasing a Growth Mindset 431

Intervention 3: Promoting Emotion Knowledge 434

Wisdom Gained from a Scientific Study of Motivation and Emotion 436

References 439

Author Index 515

Subject Index 530

New to this Edition:

  • A deeper understanding of motivation and emotion based on the latest research enables greater clarity and organization of ideas
  • New coverage includes Expectancy X Value theories, mindfulness, terror management theory, intrinsic vs extrinsic goals, psychological need frustration, leadership motivation, failure, and more
  • Each chapter addresses a specific concern, and includes recommended reading on the chapter's central theme

Wiley Advantage:

  • Explores the spectrum of conditions that affect what we want and what we do
  • Expands theory and finding into practical application for work, school, and home
  • Provides clear, concise explanations for complex topics of motivation
  • Describes where the latest research fits into the overall picture of motivation
  • Includes an Instructor's Manual and Test Bank featuring discussion questions, activities, central principles, and other tools