Understanding and Applying Cognitive Development Theory: New Directions for Student Services, Number 88
DescriptionCreating learning environments and learning experiences for students is one of the primary purposes of student services. Student services professionals need to have a solid understanding of the cognitive development of college students in order to design activities that will enhance that development. This issue of New Directions for Student Services reviews five theories of the cognitive development of college students and explores the applications of those theories for student affairs practice. The theories shed light on gender-related patterns of knowing and reasoning; interpersonal, cultural, and emotional influences on cognitive development; and people's methods of approaching complex issues and defending what they believe.
This is the 88th issue of the quarterly journals New Directions for Student Services.
AUTHORS’ NOTES 1
Patrick G. Love, Victoria L. Guthrie
1. Perry’s Intellectual Scheme 5
This chapter summarizes Perry’s intellectual scheme and places it in the context of the 1990s.
2. Women’s Ways of Knowing 17
Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule’s research on the cognitive development of women is described.
3. Baxter Magolda’s Epistemological Reflection Model 29
Marianne T. Bock
Understanding gender-related patterns of knowing and reasoning in traditional-aged college students is a critical element in effective student affairs practice.
4. King and Kitchener’s Reflective Judgment Model 41
King and Kitchener’s model delineates seven consistent patterns that describe how people approach complex issues and defend what they believe.
5. Interpersonal, Cultural, and Emotional Influences on Cognitive Development 53
This chapter provides an overview of the research linking cognitive development to interpersonal, cultural, and emotional factors.
6. Kegan’s Orders of Consciousness 65
Kegan’s theory consists of five orders of consciousness that represent principles of mental organization affecting the way we think, feel, and relate to ourselves and others.
7. Synthesis, Assessment, and Application 77
This chapter synthesizes the theories, provides a method for intentional informal assessment, and presents information on applying cognitive development theory in practice.