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Urban Pollution: Science and Management

Urban Pollution: Science and Management

Susanne M. Charlesworth (Editor) , Colin A. Booth (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-26050-9

Oct 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

464 pages

$125.99

Description

Multidisciplinary treatment of the urgent issues surrounding urban pollution worldwide 

Written by some of the top experts on the subject in the world, this book presents the diverse, complex and current themes of the urban pollution debate across the built environment, urban development and management continuum. It uniquely combines the science of urban pollution with associated policy that seeks to control it, and includes a comprehensive collection of international case studies showing the status of the problem worldwide.

Urban Pollution: Science and Management is a multifaceted collection of chapters that address the contemporary concomitant issues of increasing urban living and associated issues with contamination by offering solutions specifically for the built environment. It covers: the impacts of urban pollution; historical urban pollution; evolution of air quality policy and management in urban areas; ground gases in urban environments; bioaccessibility of trace elements in urban environments; urban wastewater collection, treatment, and disposal; living green roofs; light pollution; river ecology; greywater recycling and reuse; containment of pollution from urban waste disposal sites; bioremediation in urban pollution mitigation; air quality monitoring; urban pollution in China and India; urban planning in sub–Saharan Africa and more. 

  • Deals with both the science and the relevant policy and management issues
  • Examines the main sources of urban pollution
  • Covers both first-world and developing world urban pollution issues
  • Integrates the latest scientific research with practical case studies
  • Deals with both legacy and emerging pollutants and their effects

The integration of physical and environmental sciences, combined with social, economic and political sciences and the use of case studies makes Urban Pollution: Science and Management an incredibly useful resource for policy experts, scientists, engineers and those interested in the subject.

List of Contributors xvii

1 Insights and Issues into the Impacts of Urban Pollution 1
Colin A. Booth and Susanne M. Charlesworth

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Examples of Urban Pollution 2

1.3 Structure of This Book 4

1.4 Conclusions 5

References 5

2 Historical Urban Pollution 7
Ann Power and Annie Worsley

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Historical Pollution Monitoring using Environmental Archives 8

2.3 Ancient Air Pollution 8

2.4 Industrial Revolution 10

2.5 Twentieth‐Century Urban Pollution 13

2.6 Industrial Emissions 16

2.7 Transport 18

2.8 Conclusions 20

References 20

3 Evolution of Air Quality Policy and Management in Urban Areas 29
Enda Hayes

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Sources of Urban Air Pollution 29

3.3 Health Implications of Urban Air Pollution 30

3.4 Historical Context of Air Quality Policy and Management 30

3.5 Future Urban Challenges 34

3.6 Conclusions 36

References 36

4 UK and EU Water Policy as an Instrument of Urban Pollution 39
Anne‐Marie McLaughlin, Susanne M. Charlesworth, and Stephen J. Coupe

Acronyms used in This Chapter 39

4.1 Introduction 39

4.2 Determining Water Quality 40

4.3 UK Water Policy 41

4.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) 46

4.5 European Policy 49

4.6 The Future 51

4.7 Conclusions 53

References 54

5 Soil Quality and Policy 57
J. Webb, Jose L. Rubio, and Michael A. Fullen

5.1 Introduction 57

5.2 Soil Pollutants and Their Sources 57

5.3 Consequences of Urban Soil Pollution 58

5.4 Soils Legislation 61

5.5 Conclusions 65

References 66

6 Ground Gases in Urban Environments – Sources and Solutions 69
Andrew B. Shuttleworth

6.1 Introduction 69

6.2 The Biochemistry of Ground Gas Production 71

6.3 Ground Gas Monitoring and Risk Assessment 73

6.5 Other Approaches 76

6.6 Passive Barriers and Subfloor Ventilation 77

6.7 Practical Examples of Gas Protection Details 79

6.8 Pathway Interception Systems for Receptor Protection and Control of Historic Sources 82

6.9 Examples of Other Techniques and Solutions: Biodegradation of Gaseous Pollutants 86

6.10 Conclusion 87

References 87

7 Insights and Issues of Trace Elements Found in Street and Road Dusts 91
Susanne M. Charlesworth, Eduardo De Miguel, Almudena Ordóñez, and Colin A. Booth

7.1 Introduction 91

7.2 Sources of Street and Road Dusts 92

7.3 House Dust 98

7.4 Urban Soil 99

7.5 Urban Geochemical Cycles 99

7.6 Conclusions 100

References 101

8 Bioaccessibility of Trace Elements in Urban Environments 107
Eduardo De Miguel, Almudena Ordóñez, Fernando Barrio‐Parra, Miguel Izquierdo‐Díaz, Rodrigo Álvarez, Juan Mingot, and Susanne M. Charlesworth

8.1 Introduction 107

8.2 Analytical Protocols 108

8.3 Bioaccessibility and Urban Environments 109

8.4 Bioaccessibility and Human Health Risk Assessment 113

8.5 Conclusions 113

References 113

9 The Necessity for Urban Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal 119
Colin A. Booth, David Oloke, Andrew Gooding, and Susanne M. Charlesworth

9.1 Introduction 119

9.2 Wastewater Collection in Developed Countries 120

9.3 Wastewater Treatment and Disposal in Developed Countries 121

9.4 Sludge Treatment and Disposal in Developed Countries 124

9.5 WASH in Developing Countries 125

9.6 Conclusions 127

References 127

10 Living Green Roofs 131
Sara Wilkinson and Fraser Torpy

10.1 Introduction 131

10.2 Increasing Urbanisation: Urban Growth 131

10.3 Increasing Urbanisation: Soil, Water, and Air Pollution 132

10.4 Urban Heat Islands and Human Health 135

10.5 Green Roof Options 137

10.6 Case Study: University of Technology, Sydney, Food‐Producing Roof and Urban Pollution 139

10.7 Conclusions and Next Steps 140

References 141

11 Light Pollution 147
Fabio Falchi

11.1 Introduction 147

11.2 Environmental and Health Effects of Light Pollution 149

11.3 How to Reduce Light Pollution 151

11.4. The example of the Italian Regional Laws 153

11.5 Conclusions 155

References 156

12 The Role of Forensic Science in the Investigation and Control of Urban Pollution 161
Kenneth Pye

12.1 Introduction 161

12.2 Types of Urban Pollutants 161

12.3 Stages in the Forensic Investigation of Urban Pollution 165

12.4 Methods Used to Identify Sources of Pollutants 165

12.5 Conclusions 168

References 169

13 River Ecology and Urban Pollution 173
Martin Fenn

13.1 Introduction 173

13.2 History of River Ecology Monitoring 174

13.3 Success Stories 184

13.4 Conclusions 185

References 185

14 Urban Meadows on Brownfield Land 187
Lynn Besenyei

14.1 Introduction 187

14.2 Creating Flower‐Rich Meadows 189

14.3 Brownfield Soils for Meadow Creation 192

14.4 Management of Created Meadows 193

14.5 Opportunities for Urban Meadow Creation 195

14.6 Conclusions 196

References 196

15 Urban Pollution and Ecosystem Services 199
Rebecca Wade

15.1 Introduction 199

15.2 Ecosystem Services (ES), the Ecosystem Approach, and Ecosystem Service Valuation 199

15.3 Urban Impacts on ES 201

15.4 ES and Urban Pollution in the UK Legislative Context 202

15.5 Enhancing Urban ES to Mitigate Urban Pollution 203

15.6 Conclusions 206

References 207

16 Greywater Recycling and Reuse 211
Katherine Hyde and Matthew Smith

16.1 Introduction 211

16.2 The Ubiquitous Nature of Pollutants in Wastewater from Baths, Showers, and Handbasins 211

16.3 The Quality of Untreated Greywater and Its Water Resource Value 212

16.4 Greywater Terminologies Used in this Chapter 213

16.5 Pollutants in Untreated Greywater 213

16.6 Standardising Greywater Treatment Systems: Removing and Minimising Pollutant Concentrations 214

16.7 Managing the Environmental Characteristics, Applications, and Urban Uses of Treated Greywater 216

16.8 University of Reading’s 2016 Experimental Irrigation of Sedum using Treated Greywater 217

16.9 Soil Results Evaluated during Irrigation using Greywater Constituents 218

16.10 Applying the Principles of Controlled Waters to Greywater Discharges for Sustaining Green Infrastructure 218

16.11 Concluding Comments and Review 220

Acknowledgements 220

References 220

17 Containment of Pollution from Urban Waste Disposal Sites 223
Isaac I. Akinwumi, Colin A. Booth, Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri, Adebanji S. Ogbiye, and Akinwale O. Coker

17.1 Introduction 223

17.2 Generation of Waste Worldwide 224

17.3 Waste Management Issues 224

17.4 Landfill Liners 229

17.5 Conclusions 231

References 231

18 Mitigating Urban Pollution through Innovative Use of Construction Materials 235
Jamal M. Khatib, A. A. Elkordy, and Z. Abou Saleh

18.1 Introduction 235

18.2 Recycled Materials 235

18.3 Cement Replacement and Geopolymer‐Based Materials 237

18.4 Innovative Ways of Using Waste Clay 238

18.5 Treatment and Stabilisation of Contaminated Sites 239

18.6 Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste 239

18.7 Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Wastes 240

18.8 Paper Industry Waste 240

18.9 Shelled Compressed Earth 241

18.10 Innovative Green Construction Materials 241

18.11 Innovative Chemical Admixtures for Construction Materials 242

18.12 Conclusions 242

References 243

19 Application of Zeolites to Environmental Remediation 249
Craig D. Williams

19.1 Introduction 249

19.2 Heavy Metal Removal 249

19.3 Pesticide Removal 250

19.4 Zeolites Used in Transport 250

19.5 Zeolites Used in Wastewater Treatment 251

19.6 Zeolites Used in Nuclear Clean‐Up 251

19.7 Zeolites in Organic Clean‐Up 252

19.8 Zeolites used in Agriculture 252

19.9 Zeolites as Slow Release Agents 254

19.10 Zeolite Safety 254

19.11 Conclusions 255

References 255

20 Bioremediation in Urban Pollution Mitigation: Theoretical Background and Applications to Groundwaters 259
Alan P. Newman, Andrew B. Shuttleworth, and Ernest O. Nnadi

20.1 Introduction 259

20.2 Essentials for Bioremediation 259

20.3 Bioremediation of Groundwater 262

20.4 In Situ Plume Treatment 262

20.5 Electron Acceptor Management in Groundwater Bioremediation 264

20.6 Oxygen Releasing Compounds 265

20.7 Anaerobic Bioremediation of Groundwater 266

20.8 Reductive Anaerobic Degradation 267

20.9 PRBs and Bioremediation 268

20.10 Reductive Biodegradation in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) 270

20.11 Conclusion 270

References 270

21 Bioremediation in Urban Pollution Mitigation: Applications to Solid Media 277
Andrew B. Shuttleworth, Alan P. Newman, and Ernest O. Nnadi

21.1 Introduction 277

21.2 In Situ Treatment above the Water Table 278

21.3 Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation 280

21.4 Ex Situ Bioremediation in Unsaturated Strata 282

21.5 Conclusion 288

References 289

22 Use of Environmental Management Systems to Mitigate Urban Pollution 293
Rosemary Horry and Colin A. Booth

22.1 Introduction 293

22.2 Why Is Environmental Management Important? 293

22.3 Organisational Benefits and Barriers of Implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) 294

22.4 What can Companies do in Relation to their Environmental Impacts? 294

22.5 What Happens when Things Go Wrong? 297

22.6 Conclusions 301

References 301

23 Role of Citizen Science in Air Quality Monitoring 303
Natasha Constant

23.1 Introduction 303

23.2 Air Pollution in Urban Environments 304

23.3 Citizen Science and New Advances in Air Quality Monitoring 304

23.4 Citizen Science, Biomonitoring, and Plants 306

23.5 Social Dimensions of Citizen Science Air Quality Monitoring 307

23.6 Conclusions 308

References 309

24 Unique Environmental Regulatory Framework Streamlines Clean‐Up and Encourages Urban Redevelopment in Massachusetts, United States 313
Catherine M. Malagrida, Ileen Gladstone, and Ryan S. Hoffman

24.1 Introduction 313

24.2 LSPs and the Privatised System 314

24.3 The Risk‐Based Clean‐Up Programme 314

24.4 Brownfield Redevelopment Incentives 315

24.5 Case Studies 315

24.6 Conclusions 324

References 325

25 Urban Pollution in China 327
Jianmin Ma and Jianzhong Xu

25.1 Introduction 327

25.2 Urban Air Pollution in China 327

25.3 Urban Land/Soil Pollution 332

25.4 Municipal Waste Contamination in Urban China 332

25.5 A Case Study of Urban Pollution in Beijing 333

25.6 Conclusions 337

References 337

26 Urban Pollution in India 341
Manoj Shrivastava, Avijit Ghosh, Ranjan Bhattacharyya, and S.D. Singh

26.1 Introduction 341

26.2 Issues Related to Urban Pollution in India 341

26.3 Pollution from Solid Waste and Wastewater in Indian Urban Areas 345

26.4 Air Pollution in Urban Areas of India 346

26.5 Water Pollution in Urban Areas of India 348

26.6 Soil Contamination in Urban Areas of India 350

26.7 Noise Pollution in Urban Areas of India 350

26.8 Ways to Reduce Urban Pollution in India 351

26.9 Conclusions 352

References 352

27 Urban Aquatic Pollution in Brazil 357
Felippe Fernandes, Paulo Roberto Bairros Da Silva, Cristiano Poleto, and Susanne M. Charlesworth

27.1 Introduction 357

27.2 Current Brazilian Environmental Regulations 358

27.3 Ecological Risk Assessment Approaches in Brazil 360

27.4 Environmental Studies in Brazil 361

27.5 A Case Study of Curitiba, Paraná 365

27.6 Conclusions 366

References 367

28 Potentially Toxic Metal‐Bearing Phases in Urban Dust and Suspended Particulate Matter: The Case of Budapest, Hungary 371
Péter Sipos, Tibor Németh, Viktória Kovács Kis, Norbert Zajzon, Chung Choi, and Zoltán May

28.1 Introduction 371

28.2 Materials and Methods 372

28.3 Results and Discussion 373

28.4 Conclusions 379

References 380

29 The Role of Urban Planning in Sub‐Saharan Africa Urban Pollution Management 385
Kwasi Gyau Baffour Awuah

29.1 Introduction 385

29.2 Overview of Urban Pollution in Sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) 386

29.3 Urban Planning as a Panacea 389

29.4 Lessons for SSA Urban Planning 392

References 393

30 Water Pollution and Urbanisation Trends in Lebanon: Litani River Basin Case Study 397
Jamal M. Khatib, Safaa Baydoun, and A. A. ElKordi

30.1 Introduction 397

30.2 Water Resources in Lebanon 399

30.3 Urbanisation Trends 400

30.4 Wastewater Management 401

30.5 Water Quality 402

30.6 The Case of the Litani River Basin 403

30.7 Urbanisation and Water Pollution Trends 404

30.8 Pollution Impact 408

30.9 Current Management Efforts and Strategies 409

30.10 Conclusions and Recommendations 409

References 410

31 Closing Comments on Urban Pollution 417
Susanne M. Charlesworth and Colin A. Booth

31.1 Introduction 417

31.2 The Future for Towns and Cities 421

Reference 421

Index 423