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Urban Sprawl in Europe: Landscape, Land-Use Change and Policy



Urban Sprawl in Europe: Landscape, Land-Use Change and Policy

Chris Couch (Editor), Gerhard Petschel-Held (Editor), Lila Leontidou (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-69134-2 April 2008 Wiley-Blackwell 296 Pages

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Urban sprawl is one of the most important types of land-use changes currently affecting Europe. It increasingly creates major impacts on the environment (via surface sealing, emissions by transport and ecosystem fragmentation); on the social structure of an area (by segregation, lifestyle changes and neglecting urban centres); and on the economy (via distributed production, land prices, and issues of scale).

Urban Sprawl in Europe: landscapes, land-use change & policy explains the nature and dynamics of urban sprawl. The book is written in three parts. Part I considers contemporary definitions, theories and trends in European urban sprawl. In part II authors draw upon experiences from across Europe to consider urban sprawl from a number of perspectives:

  • Infrastructure-related sprawl, such as can be seen around Athens;
  • Sprawl in the post-socialist city, as typified by Warsaw, Leipzig and Ljubljana;
  • Decline and sprawl, where a comparative analysis of Liverpool and Leipzig shows that sprawl is not confined to expanding cities;
  • Sprawl based on the development of second homes as found in Sweden, Austria and elsewhere.

In part III a formal qualitative model of sprawl is developed. Policies for the control of urban sprawl and the roles of different stakeholders are considered. Finally, a concluding chapter raises questions about the nature and dynamics of these new urban landscapes and their sustainability.

Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xx

Part I Theory and Method 1

1 Introduction: Definitions, Theories and Methods of Comparative Analysis 3
Chris Couch, Lila Leontidou and Karl-Olov Arnstberg

Background 3

The origins of suburbia and urban sprawl in Europe and the USA 6

Some differences between Europe and the USA 15

The development of theory and policy in Europe 20

Methodology 28

The structure of the book 32

Note 34

References 34

2 Sprawl in European Cities: The Comparative Background 39
Diana Reckien and Jay Karecha

Urban trends in Europe 39

Urban trends in the case study cities 45

Conclusions 64

Appendix: Patterns of growth and sprawl across European cities 65

References 67

Part II Types of Urban Sprawl in Europe 69

3 Infrastructure-related Urban Sprawl: Mega-events and Hybrid Peri-urban Landscapes in Southern Europe 71
Lila Leontidou, Alex Afouxenidis, Elias Kourliouros and Emmanuel Marmaras

Introduction: theory and method 71

‘Astyphilia’ and popular spontaneous suburbanisation until the 1970s 73

Modernism and urban land policy after EU accession 80

Toward the entrepreneurial city and post-Olympic landscapes 87

Mega-events and Mediterranean urban futures 94

Notes 96

References 98

4 Sprawl in the Post-Socialist City: The Changing Economic and Institutional Context of Central and Eastern European Cities 102
Nataša Pichler-Milanovic, Ma³gorzata Gutry-Korycka and Dieter Rink

Socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe 102

Transition reforms in Central and Eastern Europe 104

The patterns of urban sprawl in post-socialist cities 108

The causes of urban sprawl in the post-socialist cities 114

The consequences of urban sprawl in post-socialist cities 121

Policy responses 127

Conclusions: what is needed for ‘sustainable’ sprawl in post-socialist cities? 130

Notes 133

References 133

5 Decline and Sprawl: Urban Sprawl is not Confined to Expanding City Regions 136
Henning Nuissl, Dieter Rink, Chris Couch and Jay Karecha

Sprawl in the context of urban decline 136

Trends in urban sprawl in Britain and Germany 138

The two cases 141

Comparisons between Liverpool and Leipzig 150

Conclusions 156

Notes 160

References 160

6 No Place Like Second Home: Weekends, Holidays, Retirement and Urban Sprawl 163
Karl-Olov Arnstberg and Inger Bergstrom

The largest industry in the world 163

A short history of the summerhouse 165

The summers of my childhood 165

Two homes 167

Making and maintaining roots 169

Recreation, retirement …and investment 170

Retreat to a loved place 171

Varmdo, a sprawled community in the Stockholm region 173

References 180

Part III Models, Urban Policy and Sustainability 181

7 Modelling Urban Sprawl: Actors and Mathematics 183
Matthias Ludeke, Diana Reckien and Gerhard Petschel-Held

Actors, actor classes and sprawl 184

The actor versus the structural perspective on sprawl 187

Identifying the feedbacks 190

Operationalising the qualitative attractivity migration model 195

Validation and future scenarios 196

Using a QUAM model for policy analysis 198

From general targets to specific policy mechanisms: a model analysis 199

Discussion of case specific strategy – suggestions from a QUAM perspective 206

Conclusions 211

Appendix 213

References 214

8 Lines of Defence: Policies for the Control of Urban Sprawl 217
Henning Nuissl and Chris Couch

The aims of policy 217

The mechanisms of policy 218

Regulation 220

Economic intervention: direct investment, taxation or subsidy 227

Institutional change, management and advocacy 229

Conclusions 233

Notes 238

References 239

9 Urban Sprawl and Hybrid Cityscapes in Europe: Comparisons, Theory Construction and Conclusions 242
Lila Leontidou and Chris Couch

‘Urban’, ‘suburban’, ‘post-suburban’, and their in-between spaces 243

Deconstructing the dualism of causes/consequences of urban sprawl 244

A systematic comparison of city case studies 256

Cultures of urbanism and sprawl in Europe 260

Hybrid landscapes and questions of sustainability 264

Note 265

References 265

Index 269

Reports new research and provides a thorough discussion of theory and policy

  • Combines development of theory around the causes and consequences of sprawl with existing policy and authors' own proposals for new policy