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Uremic Toxins

Toshimitsu Niwa

ISBN: 978-1-118-42410-0 September 2012 400 Pages


Reviews all the latest basic and clinical research findings

With contributions from leading international experts in the field, this book is dedicated to all facets of uremic toxins research, including low molecular weight solutes, protein-bound solutes, and middle molecules. Moreover, it covers everything from basic mass spectrometry research to the latest clinical findings and practices.

Uremic Toxins is divided into three sections:

  • Section One, Uremic Toxins, explores the definition, classification, listing, and mass spectrometric analysis of uremic toxins
  • Section Two, Selected Uremic Toxins, describes key uremic toxins, explaining chemical structures, metabolism, analytical methods, plasma levels, toxicity, clinical implications, and removal methods. Among the uremic toxins covered are indoxyl sulfate, asymmetric dimethylarginine, PTH, ß2-microglobulin, and AGEs
  • Section Three, Therapeutic Removal of Uremic Toxins, describes how uremic toxins can be removed by hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and oral sorbent

All chapters are based on the authors' thorough review of the literature as well as their own personal laboratory and clinical experience. References at the end of each chapter provide a gateway to the literature in the field.

Reviewing all the latest basic and clinical research findings, Uremic Toxins will help bench scientists in nephrology advance their own investigations. It will also help clinicians take advantage of the latest tested and proven treatments for the management of chronic kidney disease.




1. Uremic Toxins: An Integrated Overview of Definition and Classification 3
Richard J. Glassock and Shaul G. Massry

2. Classification and a List of Uremic Toxins 13
Nathalie Neirynck, Rita De Smet, Eva Schepers, Raymond Vanholder, and Griet Glorieux

3. Analysis of Uremic Toxins with Mass Spectrometry 35
Toshimitsu Niwa


4. Indoxyl Sulfate 53
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5. p-Cresyl Sulfate 77
Anneleen Pletinck, Raymond Vanholder, and Griet Glorieux

6. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic Acid 87
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7. Phenylacetic Acid 99
Anna Schulz and Joachim Jankowski

8. Homocysteine and Hydrogen Sulfide, Two Opposing Aspects in the Pathobiology of Sulfur Compounds in Chronic Renal Failure 109
Alessandra F. Perna and Diego Ingrosso

9. Guanidino Compounds 125
Sunny Eloot, Griet Glorieux, Peter Paul De Deyn, and Raymond Vanholder

10. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine 143
Vladimýr Teplan and Jaroslav Racek

11. Nicotinamide Metabolites 163
Boleslaw Rutkowski and Przemyslaw Rutkowski

12. Dicarbonyls (Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, and 3-Deoxyglucosone) 177
Naila Rabbani and Paul J. Thornalley

13. Glucose Degradation Products in Peritoneal Dialysis 193
Monika Pischetsrieder and Sabrina Gensberger

14. Dinucleoside Polyphosphates 209
Joachim Jankowski and Vera Jankowski

15. Parathyroid Hormone 227
Shaul G. Massry and Miroslaw Smogorzewski

16. b2-Microglobulin 249
Suguru Yamamoto, Junichiro James Kazama, Hiroki Maruyama, Ichiei Narita, and Fumitake Gejyo

17. Cytokines 259
Bj€orn Anderstam, Bengt Lindholm, and Peter Stenvinkel

18. Free Immunoglobulin Light Chains 279
Gerald Cohen and Walter H. H€orl

19. Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) 293
Naila Rabbani and Paul J. Thornalley

20. Oxidized Albumin 305
Maurizio Bruschi, Giovanni Candiano, Laura Santucci, and Gian Marco Ghiggeri


21. Therapeutic Removal of Uremic Toxins by Hemodialysis 317
Tammy L. Sirich, Pavel Aronov, and Timothy W. Meyer

22. Therapeutic Removal of Uremic Toxins by Peritoneal Dialysis 331
Malgorzata Debowska, Elvia Garcýa-Lopez, Jacek Waniewski, and Bengt Lindholm

23. Therapeutic Removal of Uremic Toxins by Oral Sorbent 359
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