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VSC-FACTS-HVDC: Modelling, Analysis and Simulation in Power Grids

VSC-FACTS-HVDC: Modelling, Analysis and Simulation in Power Grids

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Description

An authoritative reference on the new generation of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems and their applicability within current and future power systems 

VSC-FACTS-HVDC and PMU: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation in Power Grids provides comprehensive coverage of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems within the context of high-voltage Smart Grids modelling and simulation. Readers are presented with an examination of the advanced computer modelling of the VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems for steady-state, optimal solutions, state estimation and transient stability analyses, including numerous case studies for the reader to gain hands-on experience in the use of models and concepts.

Key features:

  • Wide-ranging treatment of the VSC achieved by assessing basic operating principles, topology structures, control algorithms and utility-level applications.
  • Detailed advanced models of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC equipment, suitable for a wide range of power network-wide studies, such as power flows, optimal power flows, state estimation and dynamic simulations.
  • Contains numerous case studies and practical examples, including cases of multi-terminal VSC-HVDC systems.
  • Includes a companion website featuring MATLAB software and Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD) scripts which are provided to enable the reader to gain hands-on experience.
  • Detailed coverage of electromagnetic transient studies of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems using the de-facto industry standard PSCAD™/EMTDC™ simulation package.

An essential guide for utility engineers, academics, and research students as well as industry managers, engineers in equipment design and manufacturing, and consultants.

Chapter 1: Flexible Electrical Energy Systems

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Clasification of Flexible Transmission System Equipment 6

1.3. Flexible Systems vs Conventional Systems 24

1.3.1. Transmission 25

1.3.2. Generation 43

1.3.3. Distribution 50

1.4. Phasor Measurement Units 65

1.5. Future Developments and Challenges 70

1.6. About the Textbook 75

References 80

Chapter 2: Power Electronics for Vsc-Based Bridges

2.1. Introduction 1

2.2. Power Semiconductor Switches 2

2.2.1. The Diode 5

2.2.2. The Thyristor 6

2.2.3. The Bipolar Junction Transistor 8

2.2.4. The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor 10

2.2.5. The Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor 11

2.2.6. The Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor 12

2.2.7. The MOS-Controlled Thyristor 13

2.2.8. Considerations for the Switch Selection Process 13

2.3. Voltage Source Converters 14

2.3.1. Basic Concepts of Pulse-Width-Modulated-Output Schemes and Half-Bridge VSC 15

2.3.2. Single-Phase Full-Bridge VSC 23

2.3.2.1. PWM with bipolar switching 23

2.3.2.2. PWM with unipolar switching 25

2.3.2.3. Square-wave mode 27

2.3.2.4. Phase-shift-control operation 27

2.3.3. Three-Phase VSC 29

2.3.4. Three-Phase Multilevel VSC 35

2.3.4.1. The Multilevel NPC VSC 35

2.3.4.2. The Multilevel FC VSC 40

2.3.4.3. The Cascaded H-Bridge VSC 43

2.3.4.4. PWM Techniques for Multilevel VSCs 46

2.3.4.5. An Alternative Multilevel Converter Topology 48

2.4. HVDC Systems based on VSC 53

2.5. Conclusions 53

References 53

Chapter 3: Power Flows

3.1. Introduction 1

3.2. Power Network Modelling 2

3.2.1. Transmission lines modelling 3

3.2.2. Conventional transformers modelling 4

3.2.3. LTC transformers modelling 4

3.2.4. Phase-shifting transformers modelling 5

3.2.5. Compound transformers modelling 5

3.2.6. Series and shunt compensation modelling 6

3.2.7. Load modelling 6

3.2.8. Network nodal admittance 7

3.3. Peculiarities of the Power Flow Formulation 8

3.4. The Nodal Power Flow Equations 11

3.5. The Newton-Raphson Method in Rectangular Coordinates 13

3.5.1. The linearized equations 14

3.5.2. Convergence characteristics of the Newton-Raphson method 18

3.5.3. Initialization of Newton-Raphson power flow solutions 18

3.5.4. Incorporation of PMU information in Newton-Raphson power flow solutions 21

3.6. The Voltage Source Converter Model 23

3.6.1. VSC nodal admittance matrix representation 25

3.6.2. Full VSC station model 28

3.6.3. VSC nodal power equations 30

3.6.4. VSC linearized system of equations 31

3.6.5. Non-regulated power flow solutions 33

3.6.6. Practical implementations 34

3.6.7. VSC numerical examples 35

3.7. The STATCOM Model 43

3.7.1. STATCOM numerical examples 45

3.8. VSC-HVDC Systems Modelling 49

3.8.1. VSC-HVDC nodal power equations 51

3.8.2. VSC-HVDC linearized equations 54

3.8.3. Back-to-back VSC-HVDC systems modelling 57

3.8.4. VSC-HVDC numerical examples 57

3.9. Three-Terminal VSC-HVDC System Model 63

3.10.4. VSC types 65

3.9.2. Power mistmaches 66

3.9.3. Linearized system of equations 66

3.10. Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC System Model 70

3.10.4. Multi-terminal VSC-HVDC system with common DC bus model 74

3.10.2. Unified solutions of AC/DC networks 74

3.10.3. Unified vs quasi-unified power flow solutions 75

3.10.4. Test case 9 76

3.11. Conclusions 81

3.12. References 82

Addendum 3.1 84

Addendum 3.2 85

Chapter 4: Optimal Power Flows

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Power Flows in Polar Coordinates

4.3 Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Formulation

4.4 The Lagrangian Methods

4.4.1 Necessary Optimality Conditions (Karush-Kuhn-Tucker Conditions)

4.5 AC OPF Formulation

4.5.1 Objective Function

4.5.2 Linearized System of Equations

4.5.3 Augmented Lagrangian Function

4.5.4 Selecting the OPF Solution Algorithm

4.5.5 Control Enforcement in the OPF algorithm

4.5.6 Handling Limits of State Variables

4.5.7 Handling Limits of Functions

4.5.8 A Simple Network Model

4.5.9 Recent extensions in the OPF problem

4.5.10 Test Case: IEEE 30-bus System

4.6 Generalization of the OPF Formulation for AC/DC networks

4.7 Inclusion of the VSC Model in OPF

4.7.1 VSC Power Balance Equations

4.7.2 VSC Control considerations

4.7.3 VSC Linearized System of Equations

4.8 The Point-to-Point and Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC Links Models in OPF

4.8.1 VSC-HVDC link power balance formulation

4.8.2 VSC-HVDC Link Control

4.8.3 VSC-HVDC Full Set of Equality Constraints

4.8.4 Linearized System of Equations

4.9 Multi-terminal VSC-HVDC Systems in OPF

4.9.1 The Expanded, General Formulation

4.9.2 Multi-terminal VSC-HVDC Test Case

4.10 Conclusion

References

Chapter 5: State Estimation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 State estimation of electrical networks

5.3 Network model and measurement system

5.3.1 Topological processing

5.3.2 Network model

5.3.3 The measurements system model

5.4 Calculation of the estimated state

5.4.1 Solution by the normal equations

5.4.2 Equality-Constrained WLS

5.4.3 Observability analysis and reference phase

5.4.4 Weighted Least Squares State Estimator (WLS-SE) using Matlab® code

5.5. Bad data identification

5.5.1 Bad data

5.5.2 The largest normalized residual test

5.5.3 Bad data identification using WLS-SE

5.6. FACTS device state estimation modelling in electrical power grids

5.6.1 Incorporation of new models in state estimation

5.6.2 Voltage Source Converters (VSC)

5.6.3 STATCOM

5.6.4 STATCOM model in WLS-SE

5.6.5 Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

5.6.6 UPFC model in WLS-SE

5.6.7 High Voltage Direct Current based on Voltage Source Converters (VSC-HVDC)

5.6.8 VSC-HVDC model in WLS-SE

5.6.9 Multi-terminal HVDC

5.6.10 MT-VSC-HVDC model in WLS-SE

5.7. Incorporation of measurements furnished by PMUs

5.7.1 Incorporation of synchrophasors in state estimation

5.7.2 Synchrophasors formulations

5.7.3 Phase reference

5.7.4 PMUs outputs in WLS-SE

5.8. Addendum

References

Chapter 6: Dynamic Simulations of Power Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Modelling of Conventional Power System Components

6.2.1 Modelling of synchronous generators

6.2.2 Synchronous Generator Controllers

6.3 Time Domain Solution Philosophy

6.3.1 Numerical Solution Technique

6.3.2 Benchmark Numerical Example

6.4 Modelling of the STATCOM for dynamic simulations

6.4.1 Discretisation and linearisation of the STATCOM differential equations

6.4.2 Numerical Example with STATCOMs

6.5 Modelling of VSC-HVDC links for Dynamic Simulations

6.5.1 Discretisation and linearisation of the differential equations of the VSC-HVDC link

6.5.2 Validation of the VSC-HVDC link model

6.5.3 Numerical example with an embedded VSC-HVDC link

6.5.4 Dynamic model of the VSC-HVDC link with frequency regulation capabilities

6.6 Modelling of multi-terminal VSC-HVDC systems for dynamic simulations

6.6.1 Three-terminal VSC-HVDC dynamic model

6.6.2 Validation of the three-terminal VSC-HVDC dynamic model

6.6.3 Multi-terminal VSC-HVDC dynamic model

6.6.4 Numerical example with a six-terminal VSC-HVDC link forming a DC ring

Conclusions

References

Chapter 7

7.1. Introduction

7.2. The STATCOM Case

7.3. STATCOM based on Multilevel VSC

7.4. Example of HVDC based on Multilevel FC Converter

7.5. Example of a Multi-terminal HVDC system using Multilevel FC Converters

7.6. Conclusions

References