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Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses, 2nd Edition

Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses, 2nd Edition

Frank Gunstone (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-444-33991-8

Mar 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

376 pages

Select type: E-Book

$188.99

Description

Our dietary intake comprises three macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) and a large but unknown number of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc). Good health rests, in part, on an adequate and balanced supply of these components. This book is concerned with the major sources of lipids and the micronutrients that they contain.

Now in an extensively updated second edition, the volume provides a source of concentrated and accessible information on the composition, properties and food applications of the vegetable oils commonly used in the food industry. Chapters are devoted to each type of oil, and an introductory chapter by the Editor provides an overview of the current production and trade picture globally. The book includes coverage of the modifications of these oils that are commercially available by means of partial hydrogenation, fractionation and seed breeding. The major food applications are linked, wherever possible, to the composition and properties of the oils.

This new edition widens the range of oils covered, addresses issues related to trans fats reduction, and new composition data is included throughout. The book is an essential resource for food scientists and technologists who use vegetable oils in food processing; chemists and technologists working in oils and fats processing; and analytical chemists and quality assurance personnel.

Praise for the first edition:

""This excellent book consists of 337 pages in 11 chapters, written by 13 experts from six countries...the important vegetable oils are dealt with in great detail. With obesity on all out lips...this book also rightly defends itself and its content - namely, that all vegetable oils, when used correctly and of course in moderation, are indeed necessary to all of us.""
Food & Beverage Reporter

""Overall, the book covers all of the major oils which the potential reader is likely to approach it for... covers a wide range of topics from production, through composition to nutritional aspects... The volume is well indexed, particularly for the individual subject oils, and it is easy to find specific topics within its chapters.""
Food Science and Technology

""This latest book edited by Professor Gunstone belongs to the kind of books where the reader rapidly knows it will bring him a wealth of updated information concentrated in one book. The goal to 'serve as a rich source of data' on the thirteen major oils and their important minor components has been attained. There is a need for books of such quality.""
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology

Preface to the First Edition xi

Preface to the Second Edition xii

Contributors xiii

List of Abbreviations xv

1 Production and Trade of Vegetable Oils 1
Frank D. Gunstone

1.1 Extraction, refining and processing 1

1.2 Vegetable oils: Production, consumption and trade 3

1.2.1 Nine vegetable oils 3

1.2.2 Palm oil 8

1.2.3 Soybean oil 8

1.2.4 Rapeseed/canola oil 10

1.2.5 Sunflower seed oil 11

1.2.6 Groundnut (peanut) oil 12

1.2.7 Cottonseed oil 12

1.2.8 Coconut oil 12

1.2.9 Palm kernel oil 13

1.2.10 Olive oil 13

1.2.11 Corn oil 14

1.2.12 Sesame oil 14

1.2.13 Linseed oil 14

1.3 Some topical issues 14

1.3.1 Imports into China and India 14

1.3.2 Trade in oilseeds and in vegetable oils 15

1.3.3 Food and non-food use of vegetable oils 15

1.3.4 Prices 16

1.3.5 The food–fuel debate 19

1.3.6 Predictions for future supply and demand 21

1.3.7 Sustainability 22

1.3.8 Genetic modification 23

References 24

2 Palm Oil 25
Siew Wai Lin

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Composition and properties of palm oil and fractions 25

2.2.1 Palm oil 25

2.2.2 Palm olein 29

2.2.3 Palm stearin 31

2.3 Physical characteristics of palm oil products 33

2.3.1 Palm oil 33

2.3.2 Palm olein 34

2.3.3 Palm stearin 34

2.4 Minor components of palm oil products 35

2.4.1 Carotenes 36

2.4.2 Tocopherols and tocotrienols (tocols) 40

2.4.3 Sterols, squalene and other hydrocarbons 41

2.5 Food applications of palm oil products 42

2.5.1 Cooking/frying oil 42

2.5.2 Margarines 44

2.5.3 Shortenings 47

2.5.4 Vanaspati 49

2.5.5 Cocoa butter equivalents (CBE) 51

2.5.6 Other uses 52

2.6 Nutritional aspects of palm oil 52

2.7 Sustainable palm oil 53

2.8 Conclusions 53

References 54

3 Soybean Oil 59
Tong Wang

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Composition of soybean and soybean oil 59

3.2.1 Seed composition 59

3.2.2 Oil composition 59

3.2.3 Fatty acid composition 61

3.2.4 Minor components 63

3.3 Recovery and refining of soybean oil 65

3.3.1 Oil extraction 65

3.3.2 Oil refining 67

3.3.3 Modified non-alkaline refining 71

3.3.4 Co-products from oil refining 73

3.3.5 Fatty acid esters of glycidol and 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol as processing contaminants 77

3.4 Oil composition modification by processing and biotechnology 79

3.4.1 Hydrogenation 79

3.4.2 Interesterification 80

3.4.3 Crystallization and fractionation 83

3.4.4 Traditional plant breeding and genetic modification 83

3.4.5 Oxidative and sensory properties of low-linolenic acid soybean oil to replace trans frying oil 85

3.5 Physical properties of soybean oil 87

3.5.1 Polymorphism 87

3.5.2 Density 88

3.5.3 Viscosity 88

3.5.4 Refractive index 89

3.5.5 Specific heat 89

3.5.6 Melting point 90

3.5.7 Heat of combustion 90

3.5.8 Smoke, flash, and fire points 90

3.5.9 Solubility 91

3.5.10 Plasticity and spreadability 91

3.5.11 Electrical resistivity 91

3.6 Oxidation evaluation of soybean oil 92

3.7 Nutritional properties of soybean oil 93

3.8 Food uses of soybean oil 95

3.8.1 Cooking and salad oils 95

3.8.2 Margarine and shortening 96

3.8.3 Mayonnaise and salad dressing 97

References 98

4 Canola/Rapeseed Oil 107
Roman Przybylski

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Composition 108

4.2.1 Nature of edible oils and fats 108

4.2.2 Fatty acid composition of canola oil 109

4.2.3 Minor fatty acids 110

4.2.4 Triacylglycerols 111

4.2.5 Polar lipids 113

4.2.6 Tocopherols 115

4.2.7 Sterols 116

4.2.8 Pigments 118

4.2.9 Trace elements 119

4.2.10 Commercial crude oil, refined, and deodorized oil 119

4.2.11 Oxidative stability 120

4.3 Physical and chemical properties 121

4.3.1 Relative density 121

4.3.2 Viscosity 122

4.3.3 Smoke and flash point 122

4.3.4 Cold test 122

4.3.5 Crismer value 122

4.3.6 Saponification number 122

4.3.7 Iodine value 123

4.3.8 Melting characteristics, polymorphism, and crystal properties 123

4.4 Major food uses 123

4.4.1 Standard canola/rapeseed oil 123

4.4.2 High-erucic acid rapeseed (HEAR) oil 132

4.5 Conclusion and outlook 133

References 133

5 Sunflower Oil 137
Maria A. Grompone

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Sunflower oil from different types of seed 138

5.2.1 Regular sunflower seeds 138

5.2.2 Commercial sunflower oil types 138

5.2.3 Composition of commercially available sunflower oil types 139

5.2.4 Other sunflower seed types to be commercialised 147

5.3 Physical and chemical properties 148

5.3.1 Relative density 148

5.3.2 Viscosity 149

5.3.3 Refractive index 149

5.3.4 Smoke point, flash point and fire point 149

5.3.5 Other physical properties 150

5.4 Melting properties and thermal behaviour 150

5.4.1 Melting properties of regular sunflower oil 150

5.4.2 Thermal behaviour of different sunflower oil types 150

5.5 Extraction and processing of sunflower oil 150

5.5.1 Preparation of sunflower seeds for extraction 151

5.5.2 Sunflower oil extraction 151

5.5.3 Processing of crude sunflower oil 151

5.6 Modified properties of sunflower oil 153

5.6.1 Hydrogenation of regular sunflower oil 154

5.6.2 Interesterification of sunflower oil 154

5.7 Oxidative stability of commercial sunflower oils 155

5.7.1 Inherent stability of different commercial sunflower oil types 155

5.7.2 Shelf- life of sunflower oil 156

5.7.3 Accelerated ageing of sunflower oil 157

5.7.4 Stabilisation of sunflower oil by added antioxidants 158

5.8 Food uses of different sunflower oil types 160

5.8.1 Use of regular sunflower oil as salad oil and cooking oil 160

5.8.2 Margarine and shortening 160

5.9 Frying use of commercial sunflower oil types 161

5.9.1 Frying use of regular sunflower oil 161

5.9.2 Frying use of high- oleic sunflower oil 162

5.9.3 Frying use of mid- oleic sunflower oil 163

5.9.4 Frying use of sunflower oils with a high content of saturated fatty acids 163

Acknowledgement 163

References 163

6 The Lauric (Coconut and Palm Kernel) Oils 169
Ibrahim Nuzul Amri

6.1 Introduction 169

6.2 Coconut oil 169

6.2.1 Coconut palm 169

6.2.2 Coconut oil 170

6.2.3 Composition 171

6.2.4 Properties 175

6.2.5 Trade specifications 177

6.3 Palm kernel oil 178

6.3.1 Palm kernel oil 178

6.3.2 Composition 179

6.3.3 Properties 183

6.3.4 Trade specifications 185

6.4 Processing 185

6.4.1 Fractionation 185

6.4.2 Hydrogenation 187

6.4.3 Interesterification 188

6.5 Food uses 190

6.5.1 Frying 190

6.5.2 Margarine 190

6.5.3 Medium-chain triacylglycerols 191

6.5.4 Speciality fats: Cocoa butter substitutes 192

6.5.5 Filling creams 192

6.5.6 Non-dairy creamer 192

6.5.7 Non-dairy whipping cream 193

6.5.8 Non-dairy cheese 193

6.5.9 Filled milk 193

6.5.10 Ice cream 193

6.5.11 Toffees and caramels 194

6.6 Health aspects 194

References 194

7 Cottonseed Oil 199
Michael K. Dowd

7.1 Introduction 199

7.2 History 200

7.3 Seed composition 203

7.4 Oil composition 204

7.4.1 Triacylglycerol fatty acids 205

7.4.2 Other oil components 208

7.4.3 Gossypol 211

7.5 Chemical and physical properties of cottonseed oil 213

7.6 Processing 216

7.6.1 Seed preparation 216

7.6.2 Oil extraction 217

7.6.3 Oil finishing 218

7.6.4 Additional processing 219

7.7 Cottonseed oil uses 219

7.8 Co-product uses 220

References 221

8 Groundnut (Peanut) Oil 225
Lisa L. Dean, Jack P. Davis, and Timothy H. Sanders

8.1 Peanut production, history, and oil extraction 225

8.2 Oil uses 226

8.2.1 Frying and food 226

8.2.2 Feed 227

8.3 Composition of groundnut oil 227

8.3.1 Oil in seed 227

8.3.2 Fatty acids 228

8.3.3 High-oleic peanut oil 229

8.3.4 Triacylglycerol structure 230

8.3.5 Phospholipids 231

8.3.6 Sterols 232

8.3.7 Antioxidants 232

8.4 Chemical and physical characteristics of groundnut oil 234

8.4.1 General 234

8.4.2 Color 234

8.4.3 Density and viscosity 234

8.4.4 Melting point/crystallization 235

8.4.5 Free fatty acid (FFA) 236

8.4.6 Iodine value (IV) 236

8.4.7 Peroxide value 236

8.4.8 Acetyl value 236

8.4.9 Heat of fusion 236

8.4.10 Unsaponifiable material 236

8.5 Health issues 237

8.5.1 Cardiovascular disease and diabetes 237

8.5.2 Weight control 237

8.5.3 Allergy 238

Note 239

References 239

9 Olive Oil 243
Dimitrios Boskou

9.1 Introduction 243

9.2 Extraction of olive oil from olives 243

9.2.1 Pressure 244

9.2.2 Centrifugation (three-phase system) 244

9.2.3 Two-phase decanters 244

9.2.4 Percolation (selective filtration) 245

9.2.5 Processing aids 245

9.2.6 Extraction of pomace oil (olive residue oil) 245

9.3 Olive oil composition 245

9.3.1 Fatty acids and triacylglycerols 246

9.3.2 Mono- and di-acylglycerols 247

9.3.3 Other constituents 247

9.4 Effect of processing olives on the composition of virgin olive oils 258

9.4.1 Aroma compounds 258

9.4.2 Polyphenols 258

9.4.3 Other minor constituents 259

9.5 Refining and modification 259

9.5.1 Olive oil and olive pomace oil refining 259

9.5.2 Refining and minor constituents 260

9.6 Hardening and interesterification 261

9.7 Quality, genuineness and regulations 261

9.7.1 Olive oil 262

9.7.2 Analysis and authentication 264

9.8 Consumption and culinary applications 266

9.8.1 Olive oil in frying 267

References 268

10 Corn Oil 273
Robert A. Moreau

10.1 Composition of corn oil 273

10.1.1 Introduction: The corn oil industry 273

10.1.2 Common corn oil refining steps and effects on oil composition 274

10.1.3 The composition of crude corn oils – comparison of corn germ oil, corn kernel oil, and corn fiber oil 277

10.1.4 Fatty acid composition of corn triacylglycerols 277

10.1.5 Triacylglycerol molecular species 278

10.1.6 Unsaponifiables and phytosterols 278

10.1.7 Tocopherols and tocotrienols 279

10.1.8 Carotenoids 280

10.1.9 Trans fatty acids 282

10.2 Properties of corn oil 282

10.2.1 Chemical and physical properties 282

10.2.2 Stability 282

10.2.3 Nutritional properties 284

10.3 Major food uses of corn oil 285

10.3.1 Cooking/salad oil 285

10.3.2 Margarines and spreads 285

10.4 Conclusions 286

References 286

11 Minor and Speciality Oils 291
S. Prakash Kochhar

11.1 Introduction 291

11.2 Sesame seed oil 291

11.2.1 World seed production 291

11.2.2 Lipid composition 292

11.2.3 Seed processing and oil refining 296

11.2.4 Sesame antioxidants and oil stability 297

11.2.5 Health-promoting effects 298

11.3 Rice bran oil 299

11.3.1 Production of bran and oil extraction 299

11.3.2 Oil refining and high-value by-products 301

11.3.3 Lipid composition and food uses 303

11.3.4 Potential health benefits and future trends 305

11.4 Flaxseed (linseed and linola) oil 306

11.4.1 Flax production and oil composition 306

11.4.2 Edible uses of flaxseed and its oil 308

11.4.3 Linola oil 309

11.5 Safflower oil 309

11.6 Argan kernel oil 313

11.7 Avocado oil 315

11.8 Camelina seed oil 315

11.9 Grape seed oil 317

11.10 Pumpkin seed oil 319

11.11 Sea buckthorn oil 320

11.12 Cocoa butter and CBE 321

11.12.1 Cocoa butter 321

11.12.2 Illipe butter (Borneo tallow) 322

11.12.3 Kokum butter 322

11.12.4 Sal fat 322

11.12.5 Shea butter 323

11.12.6 Mango kernel fat 324

11.13 Oils containing „¶-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) 324

11.13.1 Evening primrose oil 324

11.13.2 Borage oil 325

11.13.3 Blackcurrant seed oil 326

11.13.4 Stearidonic acid oils 326

11.13.5 Nutritional and health benefits of GLA and SDA oils 327

11.14 Tree nut oils 327

11.14.1 Brazil nut kernel oil 328

11.14.2 Hazel nut oil 328

11.14.3 Macadamia nut oil 329

11.14.4 Walnut oil 331

11.14.5 Health benefits of nuts and nut lipids 331

References 331

Useful Websites 343

Index 347