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Vehicle Dynamics

Vehicle Dynamics

Martin Meywerk

ISBN: 978-1-118-97136-9

Apr 2015

360 pages

$96.99

Description

  • Comprehensively covers the fundamentals of vehicle dynamics with application to automotive mechatronics
  • Presents a number of different design, analysis and implementation considerations related to automobiles, including power requirements, converters, performance, fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic models
  • Covers the dynamics, modeling and control of not only the entire vehicle system, but also of key elements of the vehicle such as transmissions, and hybrid systems integration
  • Includes exercise problems and MATLAB® codes
  • Accompanied by a website hosting animations

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Foreword xi

Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

List of Abbreviations and Symbols xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introductory Remarks 3

1.2 Motion of the Vehicle 4

1.3 Questions and Exercises 8

2 The Wheel 11

2.1 Equations of Motion of the Wheel 11

2.2 Wheel Resistances 14

2.2.1 Rolling Resistance 14

2.2.2 Aquaplaning 18

2.2.3 Bearing Resistance 19

2.2.4 Toe-In/Toe-Out Resistance 19

2.3 Tyre Longitudinal Force Coefficient, Slip 20

2.4 Questions and Exercises 24

3 Driving Resistances, Power Requirement 27

3.1 Aerodynamic Drag 27

3.2 Gradient Resistance 29

3.3 Acceleration Resistance 29

3.4 Equation of Motion for the Entire Vehicle 32

3.5 Performance 34

3.6 Questions and Exercises 39

4 Converters 43

4.1 Clutch, Rotational Speed Converter 45

4.2 Transmission, Torque Converter 48

4.3 Questions and Exercises 54

5 Driving Performance Diagrams, Fuel Consumption 57

5.1 Maximum Speed without Gradient 60

5.2 Gradeability 61

5.3 Acceleration Capability 61

5.4 Fuel Consumption 63

5.5 Fuel Consumption Test Procedures 68

5.6 Questions and Exercises 70

6 Driving Limits 73

6.1 Equations of Motion 74

6.2 Braking Process 79

6.3 Braking Rate 84

6.4 Questions and Exercises 91

7 Hybrid Powertrains 93

7.1 Principal Functionalities 93

7.2 Topologies of Hybrid Powertrains 99

7.3 Regenerative Braking and Charging 101

7.4 Questions and Exercises 106

8 Adaptive Cruise Control 107

8.1 Components and Control Algorithm 107

8.2 Measurement of Distances and Relative Velocities 112

8.3 Approach Ability 117

8.4 Questions and Exercises 118

9 Ride Dynamics 121

9.1 Vibration Caused by Uneven Roads 124

9.1.1 Damped Harmonic Oscillator 124

9.1.2 Assessment Criteria 128

9.1.3 Stochastic Irregularities 130

9.1.4 Conflict between Safety and Comfort 132

9.2 Oscillations of Powertrains 144

9.2.1 Torsional Oscillators 144

9.2.2 Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorbers 147

9.3 Examples 151

9.4 Questions and Exercises 152

10 Vehicle Substitute Models 155

10.1 Two-mass Substitute System 155

10.2 Two-axle Vehicle, Single-track Excitation 158

10.3 Non-linear Characteristic Curves 165

10.4 Questions and Exercises 167

11 Single-track Model, Tyre Slip Angle, Steering 169

11.1 Equations of Motion of the Single-track Model 169

11.2 Slip Angle 177

11.3 Steering 181

11.4 Linearized Equations of Motion of the Single-track Model 185

11.5 Relationship between Longitudinal Forces and Lateral Forces in the Contact Patch 188

11.6 Effect of Differentials when Cornering 189

11.7 Questions and Exercises 191

12 Circular Driving at a Constant Speed 193

12.1 Equations 193

12.2 Solution of the Equations 195

12.3 Geometric Aspects 197

12.4 Oversteering and Understeering 201

12.5 Questions and Exercises 205

13 Dynamic Behaviour 207

13.1 Stability of Steady-state Driving Conditions 207

13.2 Steering Behaviour 210

13.3 Crosswind Behaviour 213

13.4 Questions and Exercises 216

14 Influence of Wheel Load Transfer 217

14.1 Wheel Load Transfer without Considering Vehicle Roll 217

14.2 Wheel Load Transfer Considering Vehicle Roll 221

14.3 Questions and Exercises 228

15 Toe-in/Toe-out, Camber and Self-steering Coefficient 229

15.1 Toe-in/Toe-out, Camber 229

15.2 Questions and Exercises 233

16 Suspension Systems 235

16.1 Questions and Exercises 245

17 Torque and Speed Converters 247

17.1 Speed Converters, Clutches 247

17.2 Transmission 252

17.3 Questions and Exercises 258

18 Shock Absorbers, Springs and Brakes 259

18.1 Shock Absorbers 259

18.2 Ideal Active Suspension and Skyhook Damping 264

18.2.1 Ideal Active Suspension 264

18.2.2 Skyhook Dampers 267

18.3 Suspension Springs 269

18.4 Brake Systems 277

18.5 Questions and Exercises 281

19 Active Longitudinal and Lateral Systems 283

19.1 Main Components of ABS 283

19.2 ABS Operations 287

19.3 Build-up Delay of Yaw Moment 290

19.4 Traction Control System 293

19.5 Lateral Stability Systems 294

19.6 Hydraulic Units for ABS and ESP 296

19.7 Active Steering System 297

19.8 Questions and Exercises 298

20 Multi-body Systems 301

20.1 Kinematics of Rigid Bodies 302

20.2 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body 305

20.3 Components of Multi-body Systems 309

20.4 Orientation of Rigid Bodies 312

20.5 Derivation and Solution of the Equations 315

20.5.1 Derivation of the Equations 315

20.5.2 Solution of Equations 316

20.6 Applications of MBS 317

20.7 Questions and Exercises 322

Glossary 323

References 329

Index 331