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Viral Infections and Global Change

Viral Infections and Global Change

Sunit Kumar Singh (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-29746-9

Oct 2013, Wiley-Blackwell

660 pages

Description

A timely exploration of the impact of global change on the emergence, reemergence, and control of vector-borne and zoonotic viral infections

From massively destructive ""superstorms"" to rapidly rising sea levels, the world media is abuzz with talk of the threats to civilization posed by global warming. But one hazard that is rarely discussed is the dramatic rise in the number and magnitude of tropical virus outbreaks among human populations. One need only consider recent developments, such as the spread of chikungunya across southern Europe and dengue in Singapore, Brazil, and the southern United States, to appreciate the seriousness of that threat.

Representing a major addition to the world literature on the subject, Viral Infections and Global Change explores trends of paramount concern globally, regarding the emergence and reemergence of vector-borne and zoonotic viruses. It also provides up-to-date coverage of both the clinical aspects and basic science behind an array of specific emerging and reemerging infections, including everything from West Nile fever and Rift Valley fever to zoonotic hepatitis E and human bunyavirus.

Important topics covered include:

  • Epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and evolutionary mechanisms
  • Host-pathogen interactions in an array of viral infections
  • The impact of climate change on historical viral outbreaks
  • The roles of socioeconomics, human behavior, and animal and human migrations
  • The growing prevalence of drug and pesticide resistance
  • The introduction of microbes and vectors through increased transboundary travel
  • Spillover transmissions and the emergence of viral outbreaks
  • Detecting and responding to threats from bioterrorism and emerging viral infections
  • Predictive modeling for emerging viral infections

Viral Infections and Global Change is an indispensable resource for research scientists, epidemiologists, and medical and veterinary students working in ecology, environmental management, climatology, neurovirology, virology, and infectious disease.

Foreword xxi

Preface xxiii

Contributors xxv

About the Editor xxix

Part I General aspects 1

1 Climate Change And Vector-Borne Viral Diseases 3
Ying Zhang, Alana Hansen, and Peng Bi

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Epidemiology of VVD 4

1.3 Association between climatic variables and emerging VVD 6

1.4 Invasion of nonzoonotic vvd to humans 14

1.5 Implications and recommendations for prevention and control 14

References 16

2 Impact Of Climate Change On Vector-Borne Arboviral Episystems 21
Walter J. Tabachnick and Jonathan F. Day

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 The complex factors influencing mosquito-borne arbovirus episystems 24

2.3 West Nile virus 25

2.4 Dengue in Florida 28

2.5 Bluetongue 29

2.6 Conclusions 31

Acknowledgement 32

References 32

3 Influence Of Climate Change On Mosquito Development And Blood-Feeding Patterns 35
William E. Walton and William K. Reisen

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 Mosquito development 37

3.3 Blood-feeding patterns 46

References 52

4 Environmental Perturbations That Influence Arboviral Host Range: Insights Into Emergence Mechanisms 57
Aaron C. Brault and William K. Reisen

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 The changing environment 59

4.3 Deforestation and the epizootic emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus 62

4.4 Rice, mosquitoes, pigs, and japanese encephalitis virus 63

4.5 Culex pipiens complex, house sparrows, urbanization, and west Nile virus 66

4.6 Urbanization, global trade, and the reemergence of chikungunya virus 70

4.7 Conclusions 71

References 71

5 The Socio-Ecology Of Viral Zoonotic Transfer 77
Jonathan D. Mayer and Sarah Paige

5.1 Introduction 78

5.2 Historical perspective 78

5.3 Human–animal interface 79

5.4 Surveillance 79

5.5 Deforestation and fragmentation 80

5.6 Urbanization 81

5.7 Examples 82

5.8 Conclusion 84

References 84

6 Human Behavior And The Epidemiology Of Viral Zoonoses 87
Satesh Bidaisee, Cheryl Cox Macpherson, and Calum N.L. Macpherson

6.1 Introduction 88

6.2 Societal changes and the epidemiology of viral zoonoses 89

6.3 Viral zoonoses and human societal values 92

6.4 Human behavior and the epidemiology of vector-borne viral zoonoses 93

6.5 Human behavior and the epidemiology of respiratory viral zoonoses 96

6.6 Human behavior and the epidemiology of waterborne viral zoonoses 98

6.7 Human behavior and the epidemiology of wildlife-associated viral zoonoses 101

6.8 The role of human behavior in the control of viral zoonoses 103

References 104

7 Global Trave l, Trade, And The Spread Of Viral Infections 111
Brian D. Gushulak and Douglas W. MacPherson

7.1 Introduction 112

7.2 Basic principles 113

7.3 An overview of population mobility 113

7.4 The dynamics of modern population mobility 114

7.5 Human population mobility and the spread of viruses 115

7.6 The biological aspects of population mobility and the spread of viruses 117

7.7 The demographic aspects of population mobility and the spread of viruses 119

7.8 Potential impact of climate change 126

7.9 Conclusion 127

References 128

8 Effects Of Land-Use Changes And Agricultural Practices On The Emergence And Reemergence Of Human Viral Diseases 133
Kimberly Fornace, Marco Liverani, Jonathan Rushton, and Richard Coker

8.1 Introduction 134

8.2 Ecological and environmental changes 136

8.3 Agricultural change 139

8.4 Demographic changes 141

8.5 Land use, disease emergence, and multifactorial causation 143

8.6 Conclusion 145

References 145

9 Animal Migration And Risk Of Spread Of Viral Infections 151
Diann J. Prosser, Jessica Nagel, and John Y. Takekawa

9.1 Introduction 152

9.2 Does animal migration increase risk of viral spread? 152

9.3 Examples of migratory animals and spread of viral disease 157

9.4 Climate change effects on animal migration and viral zoonoses 166

9.5 Shifts in timing of migration and range extents 166

9.6 Combined effects of climate change, disease, and migration 167

9.7 Conclusions and future directions 169

Acknowledgements 170

References 170

10 Illegal Animal And (Bush) Meat Trade Associated Risk Of Spread Of Viral Infections 179
Christopher Kilonzo, Thomas J. Stopka, and Bruno Chomel

10.1 Introduction 180

10.2 Search strategy and selection criteria 180

10.3 The bushmeat trade 181

10.4 Bushmeat hunting and emerging infectious diseases 181

10.5 Risk factors and modes of transmission 183

10.6 Conservation and wildlife sustainability 184

10.7 Case study: The role of the bushmeat trade in the evolution of Hiv 185

10.8 Illegal trade of domestic animals and exotic pets 186

10.9 Discussion and future directions 187

10.10 Prevention and control: From supply and demand to health education techniques 187

10.11 New technologies 188

10.12 Collaboration: Multidisciplinary advances and next steps 189

10.13 Conclusion 190

Conflicts of interest 190

References 190

11 Biological Significance Of Bats As A Natural Reservoir Of Emerging Viruses 195
Angela M. Bosco-Lauth and Richard A. Bowen

11.1 Introduction 195

11.2 Bats as exemplars of biodiversity 196

11.3 Bats are reservoir hosts for zoonotic and emerging pathogens 197

11.4 Contact rate as a driver for emergence of bat-associated zoonoses 203

11.5 Potential impact of climate change on viruses transmitted by bats 205

11.6 Conclusions 206

References 206

12 Role And Strategies Of Surveillance Networks In Handling Emerging And Reemerging Viral Infections 213
Carlos Castillo-Salgado

12.1 Introduction 214

12.2 Global trend of viral infectious agents and diseases 214

12.3 Recognized importance of public health surveillance 215

12.4 Definition and scope of public health surveillance 216

12.5 Key functions and uses of disease surveillance 217

12.6 New expansion of surveillance by the ihr-2005 218

12.7 Emergence of new global surveillance networks 218

12.8 Global influenza surveillance and who’s pandemic influenza preparedness framework 219

12.9 Early warning surveillance systems 220

12.10 Innovative approaches for surveillance 222

12.11 Electronic and web-based information platforms for information reporting, sharing, and dissemination 222

12.12 Real-time and near real-time information 223

12.13 New updated statistical methods for tracking viral and infectious disease outbreaks 223

12.14 Using proxy and compiled web-based information from different sources 225

12.15 Incorporation of public–private partnerships in surveillance activities 226

12.16 Use of volunteer sentinel physicians 226

12.17 Improving guidelines and protocols for viral surveillance 226

12.18 Incorporating health situation rooms or strategic command centers for monitoring, analysis, and response in surveillance efforts 227

12.19 Challenges of viral and public health surveillance 228

References 229

13 Predictive Modeling Of Emerging Infections 233
Anna L. Buczak, Steven M. Babin, Brian H. Feighner, Phillip T. Koshute, and Sheri H. Lewis

13.1 Introduction 233

13.2 Types of models 234

13.3 Remote sensing and its use in disease outbreak prediction 235

13.4 Approaches to modeling and their evaluation 241

13.5 Examples of prediction models 244

13.6 Conclusion 250

References 250

14 Developments And Challenges In Diagnostic Virology 255
Luisa Barzon, Laura Squarzon, Monia Pacenti, and Giorgio Palù

14.1 Introduction 256

14.2 Preparedness 258

14.3 Challenges in diagnosis of emerging viral infections 259

14.4 Approaches to the diagnosis of emerging viral infections 260

14.5 Conclusions 267

Acknowledgement 268

References 268

15 Advances In Detecting And Responding To Threats From Bioterrorism And Emerging Viral Infections 275
Stephen A. Morse and Angela Weber

15.1 Introduction 276

15.2 Emerging, reemerging, and intentionally emerging diseases 276

15.3 Bioterrorism 278

15.4 Viruses as bioweapons 279

15.5 Impact of biotechnology 282

15.6 Deterrence, recognition, and response 284

15.7 Public health surveillance 288

15.8 Conclusion 291

References 291

16 Molecular And Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Viral Emergence 297
Juan Carlos Saiz, Francisco Sobrino, Noemí Sevilla, Verónica Martín, Celia Perales, and Esteban Domingo

16.1 Introduction: Biosphere and virosphere diversities 298

16.2 Virus variation as a factor in viral emergence: a role of complexity 299

16.3 High error rates originate quasispecies swarms 300

16.4 Evolutionary mechanisms that may participate in viral disease emergence 302

16.5 Ample genetic and host range variations of fmdv: a human epidemic to be? 304

16.6 The arbovirus host alternations: high exposure to environmental modifications 307

16.7 Arenaviruses: As an emerging threat 313

16.8 Conclusion 315

Acknowledgement 316

References 316

17 Drivers Of Emergence And Sources Of Future Emerging And Reemerging Viral Infections 327
Leslie A. Reperant and Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus

17.1 Introduction 328

17.2 Prehistoric and historic unfolding of the drivers of disease emergence 329

17.3 Proximal drivers of disease emergence and sources of future emerging and reemerging viral infections 334

17.4 Further insights from the theory of island biogeography 338

References 339

18 Spillover Transmission And Emergence Of Viral Outbreaks In Humans 343
Sunit K. Singh

18.1 Introduction 343

18.2 Major anthropogenic factors responsible for spillover 344

18.3 Major viral factors playing a role in spillover 347

18.4 Intermediate hosts and species barriers in viral transmission 349

18.5 Conclusion 349

References 349

Part II Specific Infections 353

19 New, Emerging, And Reemerging Respiratory Viruses 355
Fleur M. Moesker, Pieter L.A. Fraaij, and Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus

19.1 Introduction 356

19.2 Influenza viruses 359

19.3 Human metapneumovirus 362

19.4 Human coronaviruses: SARS and non-SARS 363

19.5 Human bocavirus 366

19.6 KI and WU polyomaviruses 367

19.7 Nipah and hendra viruses 368

19.8 Conclusion 369

19.9 List of abbreviations 369

References 370

20 Emergence Of Zoonotic Orthopox Virus Infections 377
Tomoki Yoshikawa, Masayuki Saijo, and Shigeru Morikawa

20.1 Smallpox, a representative orthopoxvirus infection: The eradicated non-zoonotic orthopoxvirus 377

20.2 Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses 379

Acknowledgement 387

References 387

21 Biological Aspects Of The Interspecies Transmission Of Selected Coronavi ruses 393
Anastasia N. Vlasova and Linda J. Saif

21.1 Introduction 393

21.2 Coronavirus classification and pathogenesis 397

21.3 Natural reservoirs and emergence of new coronaviruses 399

21.4 Alpha-, beta- and gamma coronaviruses: cross-species transmission 404

21.5 Anthropogenic factors and climate influence on coronavirus diversity and outbreaks 407

21.6 Conclusion 410

References 410

22 Impac t Of Environmental And Social Factors On Ross River Virus Outbreaks 419
Craig R. Williams and David O. Harley

22.1 Introduction 420


22.2 History of mosquito-borne epidemic polyarthritis outbreaks in australia and the pacific 420

22.3 RRV transmission cycles have a variety of ecologies 421

22.4 Typical environmental determinants of RRV activity 422

22.5 Social determinants of RRV disease activity 423

22.6 A Conceptual framework for understanding the influence of environmental and social factors on RRV disease activity 423

22.7 Climate Change and RRV 427

22.8 Conclusion 427

Acknowledgement 428

References 428

23 Infection Patterns And Emergence Of O’nyong-Nyong Virus 433
Ann M. Powers

23.1 Introduction 433

23.2 History of outbreaks 434

23.3 Clinical manifestations 435

23.4 Epidemiology 435

23.5 Factors affecting emergence 437

23.6 Conclusion 440

References 441

24 Zoonotic Hepa titis E: Animal Reservoirs, Emerging Risks, And Impact Of Climate Change 445
Nicole Pavio and Jérôme Bouquet

24.1 Introduction 446

24.2 HEV biology and classification 446

24.3 Pathogenesis in humans 449

24.4 Animal Reservoirs 451

24.5 Zoonotic and Interspecies Transmission of HEV and HEV-like viruses 454

24.6 HEV in the environment 456

24.7 Climate change and impact on HEV exposure 457

24.8 Prevention 458

24.9 Conclusion 458

Acknowledgement 459

References 459

25 Impact Of Climate Change On Outbreaks Of Arenaviral Infections 467
James Christopher Clegg

25.1 Introduction 467

25.2 Natural history of arenaviruses 468

25.3 Predicted climate changes 470


25.4 Arenaviral diseases and climate change 471

References 473

26 Emerging And Reemerging Human Bunyavirus Infections And Climate Change 477
Laura J. Sutherland, Assaf Anyamba, and A. Desiree LaBeaud

26.1 Introduction 478

26.2 Bunyaviridae family 478

26.3 Climate Change and Bunyaviridae: Climatic influences on transmission cycles and subsequent risk for transmission of bunyaviruses 482

26.4 Disease spread due to growing geographic distribution of competent vectors 485

26.5 using climate as a means for outbreak prediction 486

26.6 Future problems 489

References 489

27 Emerging Trend Of Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, And Rotavi ruses In Human Viral
Gastroenteritis 495
Daniel Cowley, Celeste Donato, and Carl D. Kirkwood

27.1 Introduction 496

27.2 Emerging trends in rotaviruses 497

27.3 Emerging trends in enteric adenoviruses 501

27.4 Emerging trends in astroviruses 504

28 Emerging Human Norovirus Infections 517
Melissa K. Jones, Shu Zhu, and Stephanie M. Karst

28.1 Introduction 517

28.2 Norovirus epidemiology 518

28.3 Features of norovirus outbreaks 519

28.4 Clinical features of norovirus infection 521

28.5 Host Susceptibility 522

28.6 Effect of increased size of immunocompromised population 522

28.7 Effect of globalization of the food market on norovirus spread 523

28.8 Effect of climate change 525

References 525

29 Emergence Of Novel Viruses (Toscana, Usutu) In Population And Climate Change 535
Mari Paz Sánchez-Seco Fariñas and Ana Vazquez

29.1 Introduction 536

29.2 TOSV 536

29.3 USUV 542

29.4 Conclusions 550

30 Borna Disease Virus And The Search For Human Infection 557
Kathryn M. Carbone and Juan Carlos de la Torre

30.1 Introduction 558

30.2 Long-standing controversy around bdv as a human pathogen 559

30.3 A negative is impossible to prove, but do we have enough evidence to stop looking? 560

30.4 Recent improvements in testing for evidence of bdv in human samples 562

30.4.1 Serology 562

30.4.2 Nucleic acid tests 563

30.5 The possibilities for clinical expression of human bdv infection are myriad and almost impossible to predict 563

30.6 Epidemiology: the “new” frontier of human bdv studies? 565

30.7 Where do we go from here? 566

Acknowledgement 568

References 568

31 Tick-Transmitted Viruses And Climate Change 573
Agustín Estrada-Peña, Zdenek Hubálek, and Ivo Rudolf

31.1 Introduction 574

31.2 Ticks in nature 575

31.3 Family Flaviviridae 576

31.4 Family Bunyaviridae 583

31.5 Family Reoviridae 590

31.5.1 Colorado tick fever virus 590

31.5.2 Kemerovo virus 590

31.5.3 Tribeè virus 591

31.6 Family Orthomyxoviridae 591

31.6.1 Thogoto virus 591

31.6.2 Dhori virus 592

31.7 Other tick-transmitted viruses 592

31.8 Conclusions 592

Acknowledgements 594

References 594

32 The Tick–Virus Interface 603
Kristin L. McNally and Marshall E. Bloom

32.1 Introduction 604

32.2 Viruses within the tick vector 605

32.3 Saliva-assisted transmission 609

32.4 Summary and future directions 611

Acknowledgements 612

References 612

Index 617

“I learnt so much from the book and enjoyed reading it. It is definitely a welcome and timely addition to the biomedical literature.”  (Microbiology Today, 1 August 2014)

“The healthcare professionals and scientists best equipped to prevent an actual viral apocalypse will have Viral Infections and Global Change at hand, rather than a machete. Or maybe both.”  (Clinical Infectious Diseases, 25 April  2014)