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Visualizing Psychology, 3rd Edition

Visualizing Psychology, 3rd Edition

Siri Carpenter , Karen Huffman

ISBN: 978-1-118-54759-5

Dec 2012

544 pages

Description

Visualizing Psychology 3rd Edition helps students examine their own personal studying and learning styles with several new pedagogical aids--encouraging students to apply what they are learning to their everyday lives while offering ongoing study tips and psychological techniques for mastering the material. Most importantly, students are provided with numerous opportunities to immediately access their understanding.

Related Resources

1 Introduction and Research Methods 2

Introducing Psychology 4

Psychology’s Four Main Goals 4

Careers in Psychology 5

Origins of Psychology 7

Psychology’s Past 7

Modern Psychology 8

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: The Biopsychosocial Model 11

The Science of Psychology 12

The Scientific Method 12

Ethical Guidelines 12

Research Methods 15

Experimental Research 15

Descriptive Research 18

Correlational Research 19

Biological Research 23

Strategies for Student Success 23

Study Habits 23

Visual Learning 24

Time Management 25

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Improving Your Grade 25

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Serious Problems with Multitasking 26

2 Neuroscience and Biological Foundations 32

Our Genetic Inheritance 34

Behavioral Genetics 34

Evolutionary Psychology 37

Neural Bases of Behavior 38

How Do Neurons Communicate? 39

Hormones and the Endocrine System 42

Nervous System Organization 44

Central Nervous System (CNS) 44

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Testing for Reflexes 47

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 47

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Autonomic Nervous System and Sexual Arousal 49

A Tour Through the Brain 50

Lower-Level Brain Structures 50

The Cerebral Cortex 53

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Phineas Gage—Myths Versus Facts 55

Two Brains In One? 57

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Split-Brain Research 58

3 Stress and Health Psychology 64

Understanding Stress 66

Sources of Stress 66

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Measuring Life Changes 67

Effects of Stress 69

Stress and Illness 72

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Does Stress Cause Gastric Ulcers? 72

Cancer 73

Cardiovascular Disorders 73

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 75

Health Psychology and Stress Management 76

What Does a Health Psychologist Do? 76

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Nicotine and the Biopsychosocial Model 77

Coping with Stress 78

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Progressive Relaxation 81

Resources for Healthy Living 81

4 Sensation and Perception 86

Understanding Sensation 88

Processing 89

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Subliminal Perception 91

Sensory Adaptation 92

How We See and Hear 93

Vision 94

Hearing 94

Our Other Important Senses 98

Smell and Taste 98

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Enjoying Pizza—A Complex Experience 99

The Body Senses 100

Understanding Perception 101

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Optical Illusions 102

Selection 102

Organization 104

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Color Aftereffects 109

Interpretation 110

States of Consciousness 118

Consciousness, Sleep, and Dreaming 120

Circadian Rhythms 121

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Sleep Deprivation 122

Stages of Sleep 122

Why Do We Sleep and Dream? 124

Sleep Disorders 126

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Dream Variations and Similarities 127

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Natural Sleep Aids 128

Psychoactive Drugs 130

Four Drug Categories 132

Club Drugs 137

Meditation and Hypnosis 137

Meditation 137

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Benefits of Meditation 138

Hypnosis 139

6 Learning 146

Classical Conditioning 148

Beginnings of Classical Conditioning 148

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Conditioning Fear 150

Understanding Classical Conditioning 151

Operant Conditioning 155

Beginnings of Operant Conditioning 156

Reinforcement 156

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Partial Reinforecement Keeps ‘em

Coming Back 158

Punishment 160

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Problems with Punishment 161

Cognitive-Social Learning 163

Insight and Latent Learning 163

Observational Learning 164

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Bandura’s Bobo Doll 165

Biology of Learning 167

Neuroscience and Learning 167

Mirror Neurons and Imitation 167

Evolution and Learning 168

7 Memory 174

The Nature of Memory 176

Memory Models 176

Sensory Memory 177

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Demonstrating Iconic and Echoic Memory 178

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Chunking in Chess 179

Short-Term Memory (STM) 179

Long-Term Memory (LTM) 180

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Mnemonic Devices 182

Improving Long-Term Memory 182

Forgetting 185

Theories of Forgetting 185

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: How Quickly We Forget 186

Factors Involved in Forgetting 187

Biological Bases of Memory 189

Neuronal and Synaptic Changes 189

Hormonal Changes and Emotional Arousal 190

Where Are Memories Located? 190

Biological Causes of Memory Loss 191

Memory Distortions 192

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: A Memory Test 193

Memory and the Criminal Justice System 193

False Versus Repressed Memories 194

8 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence 200

Thinking 202

Cognitive Building Blocks 202

Solving Problems 203

Barriers to Problem Solving 205

Creativity 206

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Are You Creative? 207

Language 208

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Language and the Brain 209

Language and Thought 209

Language Development 210

Can Humans Talk with Nonhuman Animals? 212

Intelligence 213

Do We Have One or Many Intelligences? 213

Emotional Intelligence 215

Measuring Intelligence 215

The Intelligence Controversy 218

Extremes in Intelligence 218

The Brain’s Influence on Intelligence 219

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence 220

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Family Studies of Intelligence 220

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Stereotype Threat 222

Lifespan Development I 228

Studying Development 230

Theoretical Issues 230

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Deprivation and Development 231

Research Approaches 232

Physical Development 234

Prenatal and Early Childhood 234

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: How an Infant Perceives the World 239

Adolescence and Adulthood 240

Cognitive Development 243

Stages of Cognitive Development 244

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Putting Piaget to the Test 248

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Brain and Behavior in Adolescence 249

Vygotsky Versus Piaget 250

10 Lifespan Development II 256

Social, Moral, and Personality Development 258

Social Development 258

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: The Power of Touch 258

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: What’s Your Romantic Attachment Style? 260

Parenting Styles 260

Moral Development 261

Personality Development 264

How Sex, Gender, and Culture Affect Development 266

Sex and Gender Influences on Development 266

Cultural Influences on Development 270

Developmental Challenges Through Adulthood 272

Committed Relationships 272

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Are Your Relationship Expectations Realistic? 273

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: The Power of Resilience 274

Work and Retirement 274

Death and Dying 276

11 Motivation and Emotion 282

Theories of Motivation 284

Biological Theories 284

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Sensation Seeking 287

Psychosocial Theories 287

Biopsychosocial Theories 288

Motivation and Behavior 289

Hunger and Eating 289

Achievement 294

Sexuality 295

Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation 297

Components and Theories of Emotion 299

Three Components of Emotion 299

Three Major Theories of Emotion 301

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Schachter and Singer’s Classic Study 302

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES:

Fast and Slow Pathways for Fear 304

Culture, Evolution, and Emotion 304

The Polygraph as a Lie Detector 306

12 Personality 312

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories 314

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 314

Psychodynamic/Neo-Freudian Theories 318

Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories 319

Trait Theories 319

Early Trait Theorists 320

Modern Trait Theory 320

Evaluating Trait Theories 320

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Mate Preferences and the Five-Factor

Model (FFM) 321

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Personality and Your Career 322

Humanistic Theories 323

Rogers’s Theory 323

Maslow’s Theory 324

Evaluating Humanistic Theories 325

Social-Cognitive Theories 326

Bandura’s and Rotter’s Approaches 326

Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories 237

Biological Theories 328

Three Major Contributors to Personality 328

Evaluating Biological Theories 328

The Biopsychosocial Model 329

Personality Assessment 330

Interviews and Observation 330

Objective Tests 330

Projective Tests 332

Are Personality Measurements Accurate? 332

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Projective Tests 333

13 Psychological Disorders 340

Studying Psychological Disorders 342

Explaining Abnormality 343

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Seven Psychological Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior 344

Classifying Abnormal Behavior 345

Understanding and Evaluating the DSM 346

Anxiety Disorders 348

Four Major Anxiety Disorders 348

Explaining Anxiety Disorders 350

Mood Disorders 352

Understanding Mood Disorders 352

Explaining Mood Disorders 354

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: How Can You Tell If Someone Is Suicidal? 354

Schizophrenia 355

Symptoms of Schizophrenia 356

Types of Schizophrenia 357

Explaining Schizophrenia 358

Other Disorders 361

Dissociative Disorders 361

Personality Disorders 362

How Gender and Culture Affect Abnormal Behavior 364

Gender Differences 364

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Gender Differences in Internalizing Versus Externalizing 365

Culture and Schizophrenia 366

Avoiding Ethnocentrism 366

14 Therapy 374

Talk Therapies 376

Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Therapies 377

Humanistic Therapies 379

Cognitive Therapies 381

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior

Therapy (REBT) 383

Behavior Therapies 384

Classical Conditioning 384

Operant Conditioning 386

Observational Learning 386

Evaluating Behavior Therapies 387

Biomedical Therapies 387

Psychopharmacology 388

Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery 390

Evaluating Biomedical Therapies 391

Psychotherapy in Perspective 391

Therapy Goals and Effectiveness 392

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY:

Choosing a Therapist 393

Therapy Formats

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Therapy—Is There an App for That? 395

Cultural Issues in Therapy 395

Gender and Therapy 396

15 Social Psychology 402

Social Cognition 404

Attributions 404

Attitudes 406

PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE: Cognitive Dissonance 406

Social Influence 408

Conformity 408

APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY: Cultural Norms for Personal Space 409

Obedience 410

Group Processes 413

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: How Groupthink Occurs 416

Social Relations 417

Prejudice and Discrimination 417

Aggression 420

Altruism 420

Interpersonal Attraction 423

WHAT A PSYCHOLOGIST SEES: Love over the Lifespan 426

Appendix A: Statistics and Psychology 432

Appendix B: Answers to Learning Objectives

Note: Appendix B is available online at the Student Companion book site www.wiley/college/carpenter

Appendix C: Answers to Identify the Research Method Questions and Self-Tests 440

Glossary 443

References 447

Name Index 491

Subject Index 502

  • Myth Busters sections now open each chapter. While studying the myths about psychology, students easily learn some of the most important terms and concepts while honing critical thinking skills.
  • Psychological Science boxed readings now include self-testing exercises asking students to identify the methodology and structure within the presented research project.
  • The third edition of Visualizing Psychology's interior design has been entirely revamped, making the book more functional and engaging to the student reader.
  • Chapter 6 Learning and Chapter 15 Social Psychology have been thoroughly revised based on user feedback with new expanded coverage of key topics.
  • The Visualizing Psychology learning program has been enhanced by the inclusion of the Author Tutorial Videos (featuring Karen Huffman) and Virtual Field Trip Videos in the WileyPLUS course.
  • Chapter Introductions: Featured alongside compelling photographs, these chapter openers illustrate certain psychological concepts with concise stories to pique the reader's interest in what's to come. Also included in the chapter opener is an outline listing the main sections and features of the chapter.
  • Process Diagrams: a series of figures or a combination of figures and photos that illustrate a complex process, allowing students to observe, follow, and understand the demonstrated topic.
  • Psychology InSight: specifically designed multipart spreads that focus on a key concept in a chapter using a combination of figures and photos to present concepts in a broader context
  • What a Psychologist Sees: Highlights in photos and figures a phenomenon that would stand out to a professional in the field, increasing a student's observational skills.
  • What is happening in this picture?: an end-of-chapter feature that shows students a picture relevant to the chapter topics, paired with critical thinking questions to stimulate creative thought.
  • Learning Objectives: offered at the beginning of each section explains what students must be able to do to demonstrate mastery of the material in the chapter.
  • Marginal Glossary Terms: introduce the chapter's most important terms in green boldface type.
  • Tables and Graphs: complete with source citations, summarize the important information at the end of the text.