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Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Ralf Koppmann (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-99415-3 April 2008 Wiley-Blackwell 512 Pages

 E-Book

$200.99

Description

Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The formation of gaseous and particulate secondary products caused by oxidation of VOCs is one of the largest unknowns in the quantitative prediction of the earth’s climate on a regional and global scale, and on the understanding of local air quality. To be able to model and control their impact, it is essential to understand the sources of VOCs, their distribution in the atmosphere and the chemical transformations which remove these compounds from the atmosphere.

In recent years techniques for the analysis of organic compounds in the atmosphere have been developed to increase the spectrum of detectable compounds and their detection limits. New methods have been introduced to increase the time resolution of those measurements and to resolve more complex mixtures of organic compounds. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyse gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The aim is to provide an authoritative review to address the needs of both graduate students and active researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry research.

Preface ix

List of Contributors xi

1 Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere: An Overview 1
Jonathan Williams and Ralf Koppmann

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Sources 3

1.3 Sinks 5

1.4 Atmospheric distribution 7

1.5 Measurement tools 9

1.6 Modelling tools 10

1.7 How organic species affect the atmosphere 12

1.8 Open questions and future directions 15

References 19

2 Anthropogenic VOCs 33
Stefan Reimann and Alastair C. Lewis

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Sources of anthropogenic VOCs 33

2.3 Atmospheric distribution of VOCs 45

2.4 Chemical behaviour of VOCs in the atmosphere 55

2.5 Measurement techniques 60

References 70

3 Biogenic VOCs 82
Allison H. Steiner and Allen L. Goldstein

3.1 Introduction 82

3.2 Sources of biogenic VOCs 83

3.3 Emission inventories of biogenic VOCs 97

3.4 Global distribution of biogenic VOCs 103

3.5 Impact on photooxidants and atmospheric chemistry 107

3.6 Sampling and measurement techniques 114

3.7 Future directions 116

References 117

4 Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds 129
Ralf Koppmann and Jürgen Wildt

4.1 Introduction 129

4.2 Tropospheric mixing ratios and global distribution 130

4.3 Sources of OVOCs 137

4.4 Sinks of OVOCs 149

4.5 Budgets and emission inventories 154

4.6 Sampling and measurement techniques 155

4.7 Future directions 160

Acknowledgement 160

References 160

5 Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds 173
Simon J. O’Doherty and Lucy J. Carpenter

5.1 Introduction 173

5.2 Sources of halogenated VOCs 179

5.3 Atmospheric concentrations: trends and distribution 187

5.4 Sinks of halogenated VOCs 192

5.5 Emission inventories 204

5.6 Sampling techniques 207

5.7 Measurement techniques 210

References 214

6 PAN and Related Compounds 221
James M. Roberts

6.1 The chemistry of PANs 222

6.2 Atmospheric formation 229

6.3 Measurement and calibration techniques 237

6.4 Atmospheric measurements 243

6.5 Modelling and interpretation of ambient measurements 249

6.6 Conclusions 255

Acknowledgements 256

References 256

7 Organic Nitrates 269
Paul B. Shepson

7.1 Introduction 269

7.2 Production mechanism 271

7.3 Measurement methods 274

7.4 Atmospheric measurements 276

7.5 Fate 282

7.6 Conclusions 285

References 286

8 High-Molecular-Weight Carbonyls and Carboxylic Acids 292
Paolo Ciccioli and Michela Mannozzi

8.1 Introduction 292

8.2 Sources 293

8.3 Atmospheric levels 309

8.4 Reactivity and impact on the atmosphere 324

8.5 Sampling and analysis 329

8.6 Conclusions 333

References 334

9 Organic Aerosols 342
Thorsten Hoffmann and Jörg Warnke

9.1 Introduction 342

9.2 Carbonaceous aerosols 345

9.3 Analysis of organic aerosols 365

Further reading 375

References 375

10 Gas Chromatography-Isotope RatioMass Spectrometry 388
Jochen Rudolph

10.1 Introduction 388

10.2 Fundamentals of stable isotope ratios of VOCs 389

10.3 Experimental methods 405

10.4 Kinetic isotope effects 420

10.5 Stable isotope ratios of atmospheric VOC and their sources 447

10.6 Conclusions 458

References 460

11 Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography 467
Jacqueline F. Hamilton and Alastair C. Lewis

11.1 Introduction 467

11.2 Fundamentals of comprehensive gas chromatography 468

11.3 Modulators 471

11.4 Detectors 474

11.5 Examples of GC × GC use in atmospheric samples 475

11.6 Conclusions 482

Further reading 486

References 486

Index 489

Color plate appears between pages 268 and 269

"The aim of the book, and well achieved, is to provide an authoritative review to address the needs of both graduate students and active researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry." (International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, July 2008)

  • Brings together all the information on the sources, chemistry and analysis of VOCs in one place, making it easily accessible to practitioners and students

  • Covers the most recent material, making it an essential first source for practitioners and students

  • Brings non-experts up-to-speed quickly, comprehensively and economically, providing the reader with a firm understanding of the sources, instrumental methods for detecting, and the atmospheric chemistry of VOCs