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Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere

Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere

Alan Robock (Editor), Clive Oppenheimer (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-875-90998-1

Jan 2004, American Geophysical Union

364 pages

Select type: Hardcover


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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 139.

Volcanic activity can have a profound effect on the Earth's atmosphere and environment across many spatial and temporal scales. From being the source of most gases in the atmosphere over geologic time scales, to producing climate change, to threatening aviation, volcanic eruptions as well as non-eruptive volcanic gas and particle emissions provide a strong link between the lithosphere and the impact of the atmosphere on human activities. Since the massive 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption we have gained—and continue to gain—greater understanding of the impacts of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere and climate. Among other things, we have learned about the winter warming effect on Northern Hemisphere continents, about effects on ozone chemistry, and about the impacts of volcanic radiative forcing on the carbon cycle. The importance of quantifying the effects of volcanic eruptions on interdecadal climate change has become more apparent in the context of anthropogenic global warming. New instruments and techniques have strengthened our ability to measure volcanic gas and aerosol concentrations, fluxes, and chemistry in the atmosphere. And new ice cores have allowed us to significantly improve the record of past volcanism.

Alan Robock and Clive Oppenheimer vii

Introduction: Mount Pinatubo as a Test of Climate Feedback Mechanisms
Alan Robock 1

Section I: Sources of Volcanic Emissions 9

Petrological and Volcanological Constraints on Volcanic Sulfur Emissions to the Atmosphere
Bruno Scaillet, James Luhr, and Michael R. Carroll 11

Degassing of Trace Volatile Metals During the 2001 Eruption of Etna
Alessandro Aiuppa, Gaetano Dongarra, Mariano Valenza, Cinzia Federico, and Giovannella Pecoraino 41

Section II: Atmospheric Observations of Volcanic Gases and Aerosols 55

Surface-Based Observations of Volcanic Emissions to the Stratosphere
Dave Hofmann, John Barnes, Ellsworth Dutton, Terry Deshler, Horst Jager, Richard Keen, and Mary Osborn 57

Global, Long-Term Sulphur Dioxide Measurements FromTOVS Data:
A New Tool for Studying Explosive Volcanism and Climate
A. J. Prata, D. M. O'Brien, W. I. Rose, and S. Self 75

Characterization of Stratospheric Aerosol Distribution for Volcanic and Non-Volcanic
Aerosols Observed Through 16 Years of SAGE II Data (1984-2000)
Christine Bingen, Didier Fussen, and Filip Vanhellemont 93

The February-March 2000 Eruption of Hekla, Iceland From a Satellite Perspective
W. I. Rose, Y. Gu, L M. Watson, T. Yu, C. J. S. Bluth, A. J. Prata, A. J. Krueger, N. Krotkov, S. Cam,
M. D. Fromm, D. E. Hunton, G. G. J. Ernst, A. A. Viggiano, T. M. Miller, J. O. Ballentin, J. M. Reeves,
J. C. Wilson, B. E. Anderson, and D. E. Flittner 107

Real-Time AVHRR Thermal Monitoring and Ash Detection: The Case of Colima Volcano (Mexico)
Ignacio Galindo and Tonatiuh Domfnguez 133

Section III: Ice Core Records of Past Volcanism 151

High-Resolution Ice Core Records of Late Holocene Volcanism: Current and Future Contributions From the Greenland PARCA Cores
Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Tracy A. Mashiotta, and Lonnie G. Thompson 153

The Number and Magnitude of Large Explosive Volcanic Eruptions Between 904 and 1865 A.D.:
Quantitative Evidence from a New South Pole Ice Core
Drew Budner and Jihong Cole-Dai 165

An Automatic Statistical Methodology to Extract Pulse-Like Forcing Factors in Climatic Time Series:
Application to Volcanic Events
Philippe Naveau, Caspar M. Ammann, Hee-Seok Oh, and Wensheng Guo 177

Section IV: Volcanic Eruptions and Atmospheric Chemistry 187

Tropospheric Volcanic Aerosol
T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, and C Oppenheimer 189

Aerosol Chemistry Interactions After the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption
Claudia Timmreck, Hans-F. Graf, and Benedikt Steil 213

Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Stratospheric Ozone Recovery
Joan E. Rosenfield 227

Section V: Climatic Effects of Volcanic Eruptions 237

Surface Climate Responses to Explosive Volcanic Eruptions Seen in Long European Temperature
Records and Mid-to-High Latitude Tree-Ring Density Around the Northern Hemisphere
P. D. Jones, A. Moberg, T. J. Osborn, and K. R. B riffa 239

Dendroclimatological Evidence for Major Volcanic Events of the Past Two Millennia
Rosanne D'Arrigo, Gordon Jacoby, and David Frank 255

The Laki Eruption and Observed Dendroclimatic Effects of Volcanism
Gordon Jacoby and Rosanne DArrigo 263

Surface Atmospheric Circulation Over Europe Following Major Tropical Volcanic Eruptions, 1780-1995
M. J. Prohom, P. Esteban, J. Martin-Vide, and P. D. Jones 273

Predictions of Climate Following Volcanic Eruptions
Matthew Collins 283

The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption, Heinrich Event 4, and Paleolithic Change in Europe:
A High-Resolution Investigation
Francesco G. Fedele, Biagio Giaccio, Roberto Isaia, and Giovanni Orsi 301

Color Plate Section 329