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Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation

Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation

André Monaco (Editor), Patrick Prouzet (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-00775-3

Dec 2014, Wiley-ISTE

336 pages

$120.99

Description

The vulnerability of socio -ecosystem combines the probability of exposure to natural or anthropogenic pressure, sensitivity and resilience. This book presents a systemic view of the diversity of pressures and impacts produced by climate change and human actions. Erosion of biodiversity by changing ocean chemistry, the intensification of global change raises the problem of the adaptation of living resources.

FOREWORD xi

CHAPTER 1. MARINE ECOSYSTEMS UNDER TOXIC PRESSURE 1
Véronique LOIZEAU and Marie-Hélène TUSSEAU-VUILLEMIN

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Details of the marine environment 3

1.2.1. The coastal zone 4

1.2.2. The open ocean 6

1.3. What is the biological response of organisms to contaminants? 9

1.3.1. At cellular level 10

1.3.2. On an individual level 13

1.3.3. On the level of the population 16

1.4. Consequences of toxic pressure on ecosystems 18

1.4.1. Interspecies relationships 19

1.4.2. Contamination and impact on genetic diversity 25

1.4.3. Host–parasite interactions 27

1.4.4. Resilience and resistance 28

1.5. Indirect effects and multiple stress factors 33

1.5.1. Impact on the future of contaminants 34

1.5.2. Effects of contaminants and climate change on different organization levels of life forms 35

1.6. Conclusion 38

1.7. Bibliography 41

CHAPTER 2. VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE OF ESTUARIES TO CONTAMINATION BY ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA: A CHALLENGE FOR THE NEXT DECADE 65
Fabienne PETIT, Thierry BERTHE, Hélène BUDZINSKI, Roland LECLERCQ, Vincent CATTOIR, Antoine ANDREMONT, Kenny OBERLÉ, Anniet LAVERMAN, Erick DENAMUR

2.1. Why does the ecosystem matter for human health in the emergence of antibiotic resistance 65

2.2. Bacterial antibiotic resistance: a global ecological process 67

2.3. Fate of contamination by antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in estuary environments:
Seine Estuary case study 69

2.3.1. The Seine Estuary: one of the most anthropized estuaries in Europe 69

2.3.2. The fate of contamination by antibiotics, from the sources of contamination to the estuary 70

2.3.3. Occurence of antibioticresistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus in the Seine estuary 78

2.4. Estuary sediments: a vulnerable environment? 83

2.4.1. The resistome in estuary sediments 83

2.4.2. Impact of contamination by antibiotics on the functional microbial community of sediments 83

2.5. Vulnerability and resilience in the estuary environment 84

2.6. Acknowledgments 86

2.7. Bibliography 86

CHAPTER 3. MICROBIOLOGICAL COASTAL RISKS AND MONITORING SYSTEMS 95
Patrick MONFORT, Serge MORAND and Murielle LAFAYE

3.1. Introduction 95

3.2. Risks and infectious diseases linked to coastal regions 96

3.2.1. Pathogenic agents 97

3.2.2. Environmental change and modifications in the epidemiological environment 101

3.2.3. The consequences in terms of new infectious risks 103

3.2.4. Emergence: cases of human pathogenic vibrios 103

3.3. Monitoring of key environmental parameters 107

3.3.1. Systems of measurement in situ 108

3.3.2. Measurement systems by satellite 110

3.3.3. Some ideas to bear in mind 113

3.4. Toward remote monitoring systems and early warning systems applied to the remote monitoring of vibrios and algae 114

3.4.1. Understanding the effect of global change 114

3.4.2. “Remote sensing” approach 115

3.4.3. Application of remote monitoring to vibrios 117

3.4.4. Application of remote monitoring to cyanobacteria 119

3.4.5. Integration of models in the monitoring and alert systems 122

3.5. Acknowledgments 123

3.6. Bibliography 123

CHAPTER 4. VULNERABILITY, IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION OF COASTAL ZONES TO GLOBAL CHANGE 131
Filipe DUARTE SANTOS

4.1. Introduction 131

4.1.1. The coastal zones 131

4.1.2. Global change 132

4.2. Coastal zones and global systemic and cumulative changes 134

4.3. The impact of climate change on coastal zones 136

4.3.1. Socio-economic and climate scenarios 136

4.3.2. Impacts of climate change on coastal zones on different time scales 138

4.3.3. The rise of the global mean sea level – observations and projections 141

4.3.4. Other impacts of climate factors on coastal zones 150

4.4. Impacts of cumulative global changes on coastal zones 156

4.5. Vulnerabilities of humans and natural coastal systems 157

4.6. The adaptation of coastal zones to environmental changes 158

4.6.1. Options and strategies for adaptation 158

4.6.2. Systems for analyzing institutional and government decisions 162

4.6.3. Adaptation in practice 163

4.6.4. The costs of adaptation 165

4.7. Bibliography 168

CHAPTER 5. THE SHORELINE BETWEEN NATURE AND SOCIETY, A CHANGING HERITAGE 173
Alain MIOSSEC

5.1. Introduction: the coastal “heritage”, a new concept 173

5.2. Coastal dynamics 176

5.2.1. The morphogenic coastal system 176

5.2.2. Marine submersion 181

5.3. Anthropogenic pressures: coastlines in the face of human pressures 188

5.3.1. Demographic growth expresses the increasing attraction of coasts 188

5.3.2. From resource use to competing human activities 191

5.3.3. The modernization of fishing and its effects on the oceans 191

5.3.4. The rise in coastal tourism and its effects on coastlines 192

5.3.5. The sediment deficit and the growing demand for sediments with its effects on coastlines and the foreshore 193

5.3.6. The globalization of trade and its effects on coastlines 196

5.3.7 …as a transition 198

5.4. Management models for the protection of coastlines 200

5.4.1. The stages of the realization 200

5.4.2. The implementation of the Coastal Zone Management Act in the United States 201

5.4.3. The slow development of a centralized concept of coastal planning 203

5.4.4. The emergence of a policy of integrated coastal management, from the global down to the local levels (and vice versa) 205

5.5. Conclusion 219

5.6. Bibliography 220

CHAPTER 6. FROM VULNERABILITY TO ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: FOOD FOR THOUGHTS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES  223
Alexandre MAGNAN

6.1. Introduction 223

6.2. Around the concept of vulnerability 225

6.2.1. The development of vulnerability concepts 226

6.2.2. Hazard, place and vulnerability 229

6.3. Toward a global and systematic approach to climate change vulnerability 237

6.3.1. From vulnerability to general environmental changes 237

6.3.2. The six broad factors affecting vulnerability 241

6.4. From vulnerability to adaptation: theoretical framework 248

6.4.1. The dynamic relationships between vulnerability and adaptation 248

6.4.2. Adaptation, a three-dimensional concept (process, state and strategy) 250

6.4.3. Thinking in terms of pathways toward adaptation 252

6.5. The action framework: thinking of adaptation as being at the crossroads of anticipation and resilience 253

6.5.1. Anticipating for adaptation 254

6.5.2. Remaining or becoming resilient 255

6.5.3. The overlap between anticipation and resilience 256

6.6. Conclusion 257

6.7. Bibliography 259

CHAPTER 7. ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO VULNERABILITY AND MAJOR HAZARDS 263
Yoann MOREAU

7.1. General introduction 263

7.2. Definitions: “environment and milieu” and “risk and danger” 264

7.3. Ambrym 1913 269

7.3.1. The point of view of the settlers 270

7.3.2. The native point of view 272

7.3.3. The assymetry of the interpretations 274

7.3.4. What makes a catastrophe? 276

7.4. Edo, 1855 279

7.4.1. Destruction of governmental infrastructures and granaries 280

7.4.2. Incooporating the rise of globalization 284

7.4.3. Victims and profit-makers 286

7.4.4. Tears and laughter 287

7.4.5. Synthesis 288

7.4.6. Conclusion: the fundamental ambivalence of catastrophes 289

7.4.7. An analytical tool: the ideogram of a catastrophe 294

7.4.8. Example 295

7.5. Tsunami or tidal wave? 297

7.6. Conclusion 301

7.7. Bibliography 303

LIST OF AUTHORS 307

INDEX 309