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Water Encyclopedia, Volume 3, Surface and Agricultural Water

Jay H. Lehr (Editor), Jack Keeley (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-471-73685-1 June 2005 800 Pages

Out of stock


Maximizing the use of our visible surface supplies in light of their greatest need in agriculture presents an enormous challenge throughout the world. New techniques in agricultural applications to preserve resources and increase yields are featured. Dams, lakes, and hydraulic features of surface water systems are amply covered, along with the importance of storm water management to growing communities.

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Preface ix

Contributors xi

Surface Water Hydrology

Acidification—Chronic 1

Episodic Acidification 5

Acidification of Freshwater Resources 7

Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage 13

The Aral Sea Disaster: Environment Issues and Nationalist Tensions 15

Lake Baikal—A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies 20

Base Flow 22

River Basins 28

River Basin Planning and Coordination 33

Bioaccumulation 34

Biotic Integrity Index to Evaluate Water Resource Integrity in Freshwater Systems 36

Reversal of the Chicago River 41

Flood Control in the Yellow River Basin in China 45

Chironomids in Sediment Toxicity Testing 50

Cienega 57

Time-Area and The Clark Rainfall-Runoff Transformation 60

Stream Classification 65

Coastal Wetlands 71

Freshwater Colloids 74

Culvert Design 75

Dilution-Mixing Zones and Design Flows 78

Drainage Ditches 87

Drainage Networks 93

Dyes As Hydrological Tracers 95

Flow-duration Curves 102

Environmental Flows 106

Eutrophication (Excessive Fertilization) 107

Cultural Eutrophication 114

Fish Cells in the Toxicological Evaluation of Environmental Contaminants 115

Fish Consumption Advisories 118

Fisheries: History, Science, and Management 121

Factors Affecting Fish Growth and Production 129

Water Needs for Freshwater Fisheries Management 133

An Outline of the History of Fishpond Culture in Silesia, the Western Part of Poland 135

Floods 142

Flood Control Structures 150

Floods as a Natural Hazard 153

Flood Source Mapping in Watersheds 155

Urban Flooding 159

Floodwater Spreading 163

Minimum Environmental Flow Regimes 166

Forensic Hydrogeology 168

Forests and Wetlands 170

Rock Glacier 174

Great Lakes 175

Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Hydroelectric Reservoirs 180

Gully Erosion 183

Potential Health Issues Associated With Blue-Green Algae Blooms in Impoundments, Ponds and Lakes 188

Heat Balance of Open Waterbodies 190

Hydraulics 194

Hydraulics of Pressurized Flow 196

Hydroelectric Power 199

Hydroelectric Reservoirs as Anthropogenic Sources of Greenhouse Gases 203

Hydrologic Persistence and The Hurst Phenomenon 210

Unit Hydrograph 221

Hydrological Processes and Measured Pollutant Loads 222

Hydrologic Thresholds 229

Ganga River, India 232

Interception 235

Kinematic Shock 239

Kinematic Wave Method For Storm Drainage Design 242

Kinematic Wave and Diffusion Wave Theories 246

Kinematic Wave Flow Routing 253

Reliability Concepts in Reservoir Design 259

Lakes 265

The Theory of Alternative Stable States in Shallow Lake Ecosystems 272

NOAA Lake Level Forecast for Lake Michigan Right on Target 274

Submerged Aquatic Plants Affect Water Quality in Lakes 275

Lakes—Discharges To 281

Lasers Scan Levees from the Air 284

Levees for Flood Protection 286

Limnology 291

Adsorption of Metal Ions On Bed Sediments 295

Microbiology of Lotic Aggregates and Biofilms 305

Microorganisms in Their Natural Environment 309

Calibration of Hydraulic Network Models 313

Numerical Modeling of Currents 320

Uncertainty Analysis in Watershed Modeling 325

Watershed Modeling 327

Modeling of Water Quality in Sewers 331

Modeling of Urban Drainage and Stormwater 337

Modeling Ungauged Watersheds 342

Corps Turned Niagara Falls Off, On Again 345

Open Channel Design 346

Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Freshwater Streambed Sediment and Fish from the Puget Sound Basin 349

Impervious Cover—Paving Paradise 363

Phytoremediation By Constructed Wetlands 364

Unrecognized Pollutants 371

Pollution of Surface Waters 373

Pond Aquaculture—Modeling and Decision Support Systems 375

Pumping Stations 379

Regulated Rivers 381

Reservoirs-Multipurpose 382

Dam Removal as River Restoration 387

Riparian Systems 390

Rivers 392

River and Water Facts 394

Sediment Load Measurements 397

Sedimentation 401

Sedimentation and Flotation 404

Reservoir Sedimentation 408

Water from Saturated River Sediment—Sand Abstraction 412

Sediment Transport 417

Stochastic Simulation of Hydrosystems 421

Storage and Detention Facilities 430

Urban Stormwater Runoff Water Quality Issues 432

Rivers and Streams: One-Way Flow System 437

Streamflow 439

Water Quality in Suburban Watersheds 441

Surface Water Pollution 444

Surface Runoff and Subsurface Drainage 451

Trace Elements in Water, Sediment, and Aquatic Biota—Effects of Biology and Human Activity 454

Innovative Pens Hatch Thousands of Trout 458

Watershed 460

Combustible Watersheds 461

Time of Concentration and Travel Time in Watersheds 469

Watershed Hydrology 472

Watershed Management for Environmental Quality and Food Security 479

Water Hyacinth—The World’s Most Problematic Weed 479

Water Quality in Ponds 484

Water Turbine 487

Wetlands: Uses, Functions, and Values 489

Wetlands Overview 493

Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States 496

Urban Runoff 498

Urban Water Studies 501

Subglacial Lake Vostok 503

Water—The Canadian Transporter 507

Flood Prevention 510

Effects of DDT in Surface Water on Bird Abundance and Reproduction—A History 513

Instream Flow Methods 526

Floodplain 527

Fish Passage Facilities 529

Fishing Waters 532

Land Surface Modeling 533

Agricultural Water

Animal Farming Operations: Groundwater Quality Issues 538

Aquaculture Technology for Producers 540

Biofuel Alternatives to Fossil Fuels 545

Soil Conservation 549

Landscape Water-Conservation Techniques 553

Crop Water Requirements 557

Agricultural Water Use Efficiency (WUE) and Productivity (WP) 558

Large Area Surface Energy Balance Estimation Using Satellite Imagery 560

Soil Erosion and Control Practices 565

Water Table Contribution to Crop Evapotranspiration 570

Crop Evapotranspiration 571

Water Pollution From Fish Farms 579

World’s Major Irrigation Areas 581

Irrigation in The United States 586

Irrigation Wells 594

Agriculture and Land Use Planning 595

Waterlogging 599

Water Quality Management in an Agricultural Landscape 604

Classification and Mapping of Agricultural Land for National Water-Quality Assessment 608

Metal Tolerance in Plants: The Roles of Thiol-Containing Peptides 609

Microirrigation 615

Microirrigation: An Approach to Efficient Irrigation 620

Plant and Microorganism Selection for Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbons and Metals 628

Nitrate Pollution Prevention 637

Nitrification 640

Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Vegetables Grown on Untreated Soils from an Agricultural Watershed 643

Pesticide Chemistry in the Environment 647

Remediation of Pesticide-Contaminated Soil at Agrichemical Facilities 651

Pesticide Occurrence and Distribution in Relation to Use 655

Assessment of Pollution Outflow From Large Agricultural Areas 657

Deep-Well Turbine Pumps 664

Microbial Quality of Reclaimed Irrigation: International Perspective 667

Soil Salinity 673

Maintaining Salt Balance on Irrigated Land 677

Salt Tolerance 681

Groundwater Assessment Using Soil Sampling Techniques 688

Skimmed Groundwater 691

Soil Moisture Measurement—Neutron 692

Soil N Management Impact on The Quality of Surface and Subsurface Water 694

Soil Phosphorus Availability and Its Impact on Surface Water Quality 701

Soil Water Issues 706

Water Spreading 708

Sprinkler Irrigation 712

Stomates 714

Crop Water Stress Detection Using Remote Sensing 719

Vacuum Gauge Tensiometer 724

Tile Drainage 729

Tile Drainage: Impacts, Plant Growth, and Water Table Levels 731

Measuring and Modeling Tree and Stand Level Transpiration 732

Water Logging: Topographic and Agricultural Impacts 741

Weed Control Strategies 742

Screen Filters for Microirrigation 748

Xeriscape 750

Media Filters for Microirrigation 752

Index 755