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Water-Soluble Polymer Applications in Foods



Water-Soluble Polymer Applications in Foods

Amos Nussinovitch

ISBN: 978-0-632-05429-9 May 2003 Wiley-Blackwell 240 Pages

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Water-soluble polymers or hydrocolloids are widely used in many fields, including food, agriculture, ceramics, paper and ink technology, explosives and the textile industry. This important new book provides a comprehensive overview of novel aspects of their use in food products. Interest in the science and technology of water-soluble polymers is rapidly increasing and this book provides a much-needed and up-to-date overview.

Chapters review important new food applications, giving short historical overviews, the latest information on uses and possible future applications. Topics covered include the use of hydrocolloids for texturization, as adhesives within food products, as coatings in products such as fruit, vegetables, cheese, meat and dried foods, and for flavour encapsulation.

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Preface viii

Acknowledgements xi

About the Author xii

1 Hydrocolloid Adhesives 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Mechanical testing of adhesive joints 1

1.3 Hydrocolloids as adhesive materials in foods 4

1.4 Multi-layered gels and texturized fruits 10

1.5 Other uses and future prospects 25

1.6 References 26

2 Hydrocolloid Coatings 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Edible packaging materials – a general approach 30

2.3 Uses of hydrocolloid for coating 30

2.4 Special biopolymer-based coatings 40

2.5 Special uses and aspects of hydrocolloid films 47

2.6 Film-application techniques 52

2.7 Physical methods and relevant parameters before, during and after coating application 53

2.8 Plasticizers 59

2.9 Drying of films 59

2.10 Gloss properties of hydrocolloid films 60

2.11 References 60

3 Dry Macro- and Liquid-Core Hydrocolloid Capsules 70

3.1 Introduction 70

3.2 Soft gelatin capsules 70

3.3 Liquid-core capsules 71

3.4 Liquid-core hydrocolloid oil capsules 74

3.5 Biotechnological applications of liquid-core capsules 76

3.6 Special food applications 76

3.7 Dry hydrocolloid capsules 78

3.8 References 80

4 Multi-Layered Hydrocolloid Products 82

4.1 Introduction 82

4.2 Deformability modulus and compressive deformabilities of multi-layered gels and texturized fruits 82

4.3 Other multi-layered edible hydrocolloid products 85

4.4 Layered cellular solids 86

4.5 Biotechnological uses of multi-layered gels 88

4.6 Techniques to evaluate properties of multi-layered products 89

4.7 References 90

5 Hydrocolloids in Flavor Encapsulation 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Spray-drying for flavor encapsulation 93

5.3 Extrusion processes for flavor encapsulation 94

5.4 Film performance in flavor encapsulation 95

5.5 Materials for flavor encapsulation 96

5.6 Flavor oxidation, retention and shelf-life 99

5.7 Controlled release of active ingredients 101

5.8 Food applications 101

5.9 Interactions between volatile compounds and hydrocolloids 108

5.10 Micro-capsules micro-structure 108

5.11 References 109

6 Immobilization for Food and Biotechnological Purposes 114

6.1 Definition, aims and features of immobilized preparations 114

6.2 Immobilization media and techniques 115

6.3 Mechanical properties of immobilization matrices 122

6.4 Mixed systems for immobilization 125

6.5 Food and biotechnological uses of immobilization 126

6.6 Factors related to bead manufacturing 141

6.7 Bead size, sphericity and pore-size measurements of hydrocolloid beads 142

6.8 References 143

7 Texturization of Vegetative Materials 152

7.1 Introduction 152

7.2 Agar and alginate-based texturized fruits 152

7.3 Dependence of composite fruit products on pulp properties 154

7.4 Combined effect of fruit pulp, sugar and gum on texturized fruit products 156

7.5 Alginate texturization of highly acidic fruit pulps and juices 158

7.6 Succulent, hydrocolloid-based, texturized fruit products 159

7.7 Multi-layered texturized fruits 163

7.8 Texturized products for process evaluation 164

7.9 Special products related to texturization of vegetative materials 165

7.10 Texturized vegetative products based on carrageenan, starch, CMC and konjak mannan 165

7.11 Unique uses of texturization 166

7.12 References 169

8 Hydrocolloid Cellular Solids 172

8.1 Introduction 172

8.2 General applications of cellular solids 172

8.3 Structure of cellular solids 173

8.4 Edible cellular solids 173

8.5 Compression of cellular solids 174

8.6 Models for describing stress-strain behavior 175

8.7 Elastic properties of edible cellular materials 177

8.8 Layered sponges and compressibility of spongy particulates 178

8.9 Brittle foams 178

8.10 Hydrocolloid cellular sponges 179

8.11 References 192

9 Hydrocolloids in the Production of Special Textures 196

9.1 Introduction 196

9.2 Fabricated foods 196

9.3 Japanese desserts and molded products 198

9.4 Use of hydrocolloids in spray-dried products 199

9.5 Frozen products 200

9.6 Stabilization and stable foams 202

9.7 Candies 203

9.8 Fluid and emulsion gels 204

9.9 References 205

Abbreviations 207

Index 209

"Overall, this monograph provides an extremely well-referenced review of many of the less well-known application of hydrocolloids in food production and an opportunity to appreciate other similar application...It will be of interest primarily to those with some existing knowledge of hydrocolloids, working in the development of food ingredients."
International Journal of Dairy Technology, February 2005

"My recommendation is that every hydrocolloids company looking for new added value outlets for their products should read this book to stimulate their thought processess... This book is a refreshing look at the cutting edge of hydrocolloids applications research from a well known expert in the field who has a pragmatic but innovative approach to using hydrocolloids."
CyberColloids, 2003

* Covers major new advances in the use of these compounds
* Author is well-known internationally for work in these areas
* Will be of vital use and importance to personnel in the food industry