Skip to main content

Wearable Computing: From Modeling to Implementation of Wearable Systems based on Body Sensor Networks

Wearable Computing: From Modeling to Implementation of Wearable Systems based on Body Sensor Networks

Giancarlo Fortino, Raffaele Gravina, Stefano Galzarano

ISBN: 978-1-119-07883-8 April 2018 Wiley-IEEE Press 256 Pages

 E-Book

$79.99

Description

This book provides the most up-to-date research and development on wearable computing, wireless body sensor networks, wearable systems integrated with mobile computing, wireless networking and cloud computing

This book has a specific focus on advanced methods for programming Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) based on the reference SPINE project. It features an on-line website (http://spine.deis.unical.it) to support readers in developing their own BSN application/systems and covers new emerging topics on BSNs such as collaborative BSNs, BSN design methods, autonomic BSNs, integration of BSNs and pervasive environments, and integration of BSNs with cloud computing. The book provides a description of real BSN prototypes with the possibility to see on-line demos and download the software to test them on specific sensor platforms and includes case studies for more practical applications.

• Provides a future roadmap by learning advanced technology and open research issues

• Gathers the background knowledge to tackle key problems, for which solutions will enhance the evolution of next-generation wearable systems

• References the SPINE web site (http://spine.deis.unical.it) that accompanies the text

• Includes SPINE case studies and span topics like human activity recognition, rehabilitation of elbow/knee, handshake detection, emotion recognition systems

Wearable Systems and Body Sensor Networks: from modeling to implementation is a great reference for systems architects, practitioners, and product developers.

Giancarlo Fortino is currently an Associate Professor of Computer Engineering (since 2006) at the Department of Electronics, Informatics and Systems (DEIS) of the University of Calabria (Unical), Rende (CS), Italy. He was recently nominated Guest Professor in Computer Engineering of Wuhan University of Technology on April, 18 2012 (the term of appointment is three years). His research interests include distributed computing and networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless body sensor networks, agent systems, agent oriented software engineering, streaming content distribution networks, distributed multimedia systems, GRID computing.

Raffaele Gravina received the B.Sc. and M.S. degrees both in computer engineering from the University of Calabria, Rende, Italy, in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Here he also received the Ph.D. degree in computer engineering. He's now a Postdoctoral research fellow at University of Calabria. His research interests are focused on high-level programming methods for WSNs, specifically Wireless Body Sensor Networks. He wrote almost 30 scientific/technical articles in the area of the proposed Book. He is co-founder of SenSysCal S.r.l., a spin-off company of the University of Calabria, and CTO of the wearable computing area of the company.

Stefano Galzarano received the B.S. and M.S. degrees both in computer engineering from the University of Calabria, Rende, Italy, in 2006 and 2009, respectively. He is currently pursuing a joint Ph.D. degree in computer engineering with University of Calabria and Technical University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). His research interests are focused on high-level programming methods for wireless sensor networks and, specifically, novel methods and frameworks for autonomic wireless body sensor networks.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xvi

1 Body Sensor Networks 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Background 1

1.3 Typical m‐Health System Architecture 4

1.4 Hardware Architecture of a Sensor Node 6

1.5 Communication Medium 7

1.6 Power Consumption Considerations 7

1.7 Communication Standards 8

1.8 Network Topologies 10

1.9 Commercial Sensor Node Platforms 13

1.10 Biophysiological Signals and Sensors 16

1.11 BSN Application Domains 17

1.12 Summary 20

References 20

2 BSN Programming Frameworks 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Developing BSN Applications 25

2.2.1 Application‐ and Platform‐Specific Programming 26

2.2.2 Automatic Code Generation 28

2.2.3 Middleware‐Based Programming 28

2.2.4 Programming Approaches Comparison 30

2.3 Programming Abstractions 31

2.4 Requirements for BSN Frameworks 34

2.5 BSN Programming Frameworks 37

2.5.1 Titan 38

2.5.2 CodeBlue 38

2.5.3 RehabSPOT 38

2.5.4 SPINE 39

2.5.5 SPINE2 39

2.5.6 C‐SPINE 39

2.5.7 MAPS 40

2.5.8 DexterNet 40

2.6 Summary 40

References 41

3 Signal Processing In‐Node Environment 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Background 46

3.3 Motivations and Challenges 46

3.4 The SPINE Framework 46

3.4.1 Architecture 47

3.4.2 Programming Perspective 51

3.4.3 Optional SPINE Modules 51

3.4.4 High‐Level Data Processing 52

3.4.5 Multiplatform Support 55

3.5 Summary 56

References 57

4 Task‐Oriented Programming in BSNs 59

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Background 60

4.3 Motivations and Challenges 60

4.3.1 Need for a Platform‐Independent Middleware 60

4.3.2 Challenges in Designing a Task‐Oriented Framework 61

4.4 SPINE2 Overview 62

4.5 Task‐Oriented Programming in SPINE2 63

4.6 SPINE2 Node‐Side Middleware 66

4.7 SPINE2 Coordinator 68

4.8 SPINE2 Communication Protocol 68

4.9 Developing Application in SPINE2 70

4.10 Summary 71

References 72

5 Autonomic Body Sensor Networks 73

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 Background 73

5.3 Motivations and Challenges 74

5.4 State‐of‐the‐Art 75

5.5 SPINE‐*: Task‐Based Autonomic Architecture 76

5.6 Autonomic Physical Activity Recognition 81

5.7 Summary 84

References 85

6 Agent‐Oriented Body Sensor Networks 89

6.1 Introduction 89

6.2 Background 89

6.2.1 Agent‐Oriented Computing and Wireless Sensor Networks 89

6.2.2 Mobile Agent Platform for Sun SPOT (MAPS) 91

6.3 Motivations and Challenges 94

6.4 State‐of‐the‐Art: Description and Comparison 95

6.5 Agent‐Based Modeling and Implementation of BSNs 98

6.6 Engineering Agent‐Based BSN Applications: A Case Study 98

6.7 Summary 101

References 103

7 Collaborative Body Sensor Networks 107

7.1 Introduction 107

7.2 Background 108

7.3 Motivations and Challenges 109

7.4 State‐of‐the‐Art 110

7.5 A Reference Architecture for Collaborative BSNs 111

7.6 C‐SPINE: A CBSN Architecture 114

7.6.1 Inter‐BSN Communication 116

7.6.2 BSN Proximity Detection 117

7.6.3 BSN Service Discovery 118

7.6.4 BSN Service Selection and Activation 118

7.7 Summary 119

References 119

8 Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Building Networks 121

8.1 Introduction 121

8.2 Background 121

8.2.1 Building Sensor Networks and Systems 121

8.2.2 Building Management Framework 124

8.3 Motivations and Challenges 125

8.4 Integration Layers 127

8.5 State‐of‐the‐Art: Description and Comparison 129

8.6 An Agent‐Oriented Integration Gateway 130

8.7 Application Scenarios 133

8.7.1 In‐Building Physical Activity Monitoring 133

8.8 Summary 135

References 135

9 Integration of Wearable and Cloud Computing 139

9.1 Introduction 139

9.2 Background 140

9.2.1 Cloud Computing 140

9.2.2 Architectures for Sensor Stream Management 140

9.3 Motivations and Challenges 142

9.3.1 BSN Challenges 143

9.3.2 BSN/Cloud Computing Integration Challenges 144

9.4 Reference Architecture for Cloud‐Assisted BSNs 145

9.4.1 Sensor Data Collection 145

9.4.2 Sensor Data Management 147

9.4.3 Scalable Processing Framework 147

9.4.4 Persistent Storage 148

9.4.5 Decision‐Making Process 149

9.4.6 Open Standards and Advanced Visualization 149

9.4.7 Security 150

9.5 State‐of‐the‐Art: Description and Comparison 151

9.5.1 Integration of WSNs and Cloud Computing 151

9.5.2 Integration of BSNs and Cloud Computing 152

9.5.3 A Comparison 153

9.6 BodyCloud: A Cloud‐based Platform for Community BSN Applications 156

9.7 Engineering BodyCloud Applications 159

9.7.1 ECGaaS: Cardiac Monitoring 160

9.7.2 FEARaaS: Basic Fear Detection 162

9.7.3 REHABaaS: Remote Rehabilitation 165

9.7.4 ACTIVITYaaS: Community Activity Monitoring 166

9.8 Summary 171

References 171

10 Development Methodology for BSN Systems 177

10.1 Introduction 177

10.2 Background 177

10.3 Motivations and Challenges 180

10.4 SPINE‐Based Design Methodology 180

10.4.1 A Pattern‐Driven Application‐Level Design 181

10.4.2 System Parameters 183

10.4.3 Process Schema 184

10.5 Summary 186

References 186

11 SPINE‐Based Body Sensor Network Applications 187

11.1 Introduction 187

11.2 Background 187

11.3 Physical Activity Recognition 187

11.3.1 Related Work 188

11.3.2 A SPINE‐Based Activity Recognition System 189

11.4 Step Counter 191

11.4.1 Related Work 191

11.4.2 A SPINE‐Based Step Counter 192

11.5 Emotion Recognition 194

11.5.1 Stress Detection 194

11.5.1.1 Related Work 194

11.5.1.2 SPINE‐HRV: A Wearable System for Real‐Time Stress Detection 195

11.5.2 Fear Detection 197

11.5.2.1 Related Work 197

11.5.2.2 A SPINE‐Based Startle Reflex Detection System 198

11.6 Handshake Detection 200

11.6.1 Related Work 201

11.6.2 A SPINE‐Based Handshake Detection System 202

11.7 Physical Rehabilitation 205

11.7.1 Related Work 205

11.7.2 SPINE Motor Rehabilitation Assistant 206

11.8 Summary 208

References 208

12 SPINE at Work 213

12.1 Introduction 213

12.2 SPINE 1.x 213

12.2.1 How to Install SPINE 1.x 216

12.2.2 How to Use SPINE 217

12.2.3 How to Run a Simple Desktop Application Using SPINE1.3 220

12.2.4 SPINE Logging Capabilities 225

12.3 SPINE2 225

12.3.1 How to Install SPINE2 228

12.3.2 How to Use the SPINE2 API 230

12.3.3 How to Run a Simple Application Using SPINE2 232

Index 239