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Weed Anatomy



Weed Anatomy

Hansjoerg Kraehmer, Peter Baur

ISBN: 978-1-118-50334-8 January 2013 Wiley-Blackwell 504 Pages

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Weeds affect everyone in the world by reducing crop yield and crop quality, delaying or interfering with harvesting, interfering with animal feeding (including poisoning), reducing animal health, preventing water flow, as plant parasites, etc. Weeds are common everywhere and cause many $ billions worth of crop losses annually, with the global cost of controlling weeds running into $ billions.

The anatomy of plants is generally well understood, but the examples used for explanations in most books are often restricted to non-weed species. Weeds have many features that make them more competitive, for example enabling them to more quickly recover after herbicide treatment. Some of these adaptations include rhizomes, adapted roots, tubers and other special structures. Until now,
no single book has concentrated on weeds’ anatomical features. A comprehensive understanding of these features is, however, often imperative to the successful implementation of many weed control measures.

Beautifully and comprehensively illustrated, in full colour throughout, Weed Anatomy provides a comprehensive insight into the anatomy of the globally-important weeds of commercial significance. Commencing with a general overview of anatomy, the major part of the book then includes sections covering monocotyledons, dicotyledons, brackens and horsetails, with special reference to their anatomy. Ecological and evolutionary aspects of weeds are also covered and a number of less common weeds such as Adonis vernalis, Caucalis platycarpos and Scandix pecten-veneris are also included.

The authors of this book, who have between them many years of experience studying weeds, have put together a true landmark publication, providing a huge wealth of commercially-important information. Weed scientists, plant anatomists and agricultural scientists, including personnel within the agrochemical and crop protection industry, will find a great deal of useful information within
the book’s covers. All libraries in universities and research establishments where agricultural and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this exceptional book on their shelves.

Section I Cells and Tissues 1

Introduction 3

Chapter 1 Tissues 5

Chapter 2 Parenchyma 8

Chapter 3 Collenchyma 10

Chapter 4 Sclerenchyma, a Typical Contributor to Weediness 12

Section II Meristematic, Secretory, Storage and Boundary Structures 17

Chapter 5 Meristems 19

Chapter 6 Secretory Structures 24

Chapter 7 External Secretory Structures 26

Chapter 8 Internal Secretory Structures 30

Chapter 9 Stored Compounds 35

Chapter 10 Epidermis 37

Chapter 11 Stomata 40

Chapter 12 Non-glandular Trichomes and Papillae 42

Section III Vascular Elements and Pith 47

Chapter 13 Vascular Bundles 49

Chapter 14 Xylem 52

Chapter 15 Pits 58

Chapter 16 Phloem 60

Chapter 17 Pith 64

Section IV Stem, Root and Growth 67

Chapter 18 Stem 69

Chapter 19 Dicot Stem – Cortex 71

Chapter 20 Dicot Stem – Patterns of Vascular Tissues 74

Chapter 21 Vascular Bundles and Leaf Traces in Dicots 78

Chapter 22 Monocot Stem 82

Chapter 23 Horsetail and Bracken Stem 88

Chapter 24 Root Morphology 92

Chapter 25 Root Histology 97

Chapter 26 Root Tip 99

Chapter 27 Xylem Patterns 102

Chapter 28 Endodermis and Pericycle 109

Chapter 29 Rhizodermis, Exodermis and Cortex 114

Chapter 30 Root Genetics 116

Chapter 31 Primary and Secondary Growth 117

Chapter 32 Anomalous Secondary Growth 126

Section V Complex Tissues and Organs 129

Chapter 33 Leaf 131

Chapter 34 Flower 142

Chapter 35 Androecium 154

Chapter 36 Gynoecium 159

Chapter 37 Genetics of Flower Formation 169

Chapter 38 Fruit 170

Chapter 39 Carpels, Pericarp and Various Fruit Forms 173

Chapter 40 Genetics of Fruit Development 184

Chapter 41 Seed 185

Chapter 42 Genetics of Seed Development 190

Chapter 43 Secondary Reproduction Characteristics 191

Chapter 44 Flower Modifications in Weeds 192

Chapter 45 Seedling and Embryo 196

Section VI Vegetative Propagation 203

Chapter 46 Vegetative Weed Reproduction 205

Chapter 47 Rhizomes 206

Chapter 48 Tubers and Corms 211

Chapter 49 Stolons and Runners 217

Chapter 50 Roots with Adventitious Buds 219

Chapter 51 Bulbs 222

Section VII Weediness 225

Chapter 52 Indicators of Weediness 227

Section VIII Short Monographs 233

Chapter 53 Introduction to Monographs 235

Chapter 54 Weed Anatomy Monographs 237

Monograph 1: Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 237

Monograph 2: Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. and Alopecurus japonicus Steudel 241

Monograph 3: Amaranthus retrofl exus L. and Amarantus palmeri S. Wats. 248

Monograph 4: Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. 259

Monograph 5: Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv. 266

Monograph 6: Avena fatua L. and Avena sterilis L. 268

Monograph 7: Bidens pilosa L. and Bidens tripartita L. 272

Monograph 8: Bromus secalinus L., Bromus sterilis L. and Bromus tectorum L. 276

Monograph 9: Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. and Convolvulus arvensis L. 279

Monograph 10: Chenopodium album L. 282

Monograph 11: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. 293

Monograph 12: Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. and Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. 298

Monograph 13: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. 304

Monograph 14: Cyperus esculentus L., Cyperus iria L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Cyperus serotinus Rottb. 311

Monograph 15: Digitaria sanguinalis L. 325

Monograph 16: Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. 333

Monograph 17: Eleusine indica (L.) Link 342

Monograph 18: Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski 348

Monograph 19: Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Löve, Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene, Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Ronse Decraene and Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub 357

Monograph 20: Galium aparine L. 370

Monograph 21: Impatiens glandulifera Royle 375

Monograph 22: Lolium multifl orum Lam., Lolium perenne L. and Lolium rigidum Gaudin 386

Monograph 23: Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill and Myosotis palustris (L.) Nath. 394

Monograph 24: Paspalum dilatatum Poir. 400

Monograph 25: Phalaris minor Retz. and Phalaris paradoxa L. 410

Monograph 26: Poa annua L. 416

Monograph 27: Polygonum amphibium L., Polygonum aviculare L. and Polygonum lapathifolium L. 422

Monograph 28: Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W. Clayton 429

Monograph 29: Setaria faberi Herrm., Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. 434

Monograph 30: Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 441

Monograph 31: Urochloa platyphylla (Munroe ex C. Wright) R. D. Webster 450

Monograph 32: Xanthium strumarium L. and Xanthium spinosum L. 454

Section IX Methods for the Preparation of Sections 463

Chapter 55 Tissue Preparation and Staining Procedures 465

References 472

Index 482

“The authors are to be com­pli­men­ted on a most worthy endeav­our and an assuredly worth­while enter­prise (allay­ing the authors’ con­cerns on p. 4…): Thank you!.”  (Aob Blog, 24 September 2015)

“Despite its limitations, the book could complement more basic and fundamental treatises on plant anatomy.  Summing Up: Recommended.  With reservations.  Only comprehensive botany collections, lower-division undergraduates through researchers/faculty.”  (Choice, 1 December 2013)