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Welding Metallurgy, 2nd Edition

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd Edition

Sindo Kou

ISBN: 978-0-471-46093-0

Apr 2003

480 pages

$168.99

Description

  • Updated to include new technological advancements in welding
  • Uses illustrations and diagrams to explain metallurgical phenomena
  • Features exercises and examples
  • An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

Preface xiii

I INTRODUCTION 1

1 Fusion Welding Processes 3

2 Heat Flow in Welding 37

3 Chemical Reactions in Welding 65

Further Reading 95

Problems 95

4 Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding 97

4.1 Fluid Flow in Arcs 97

4.2 Fluid Flow in Weld Pools 103

4.3 Metal Evaporation 114

4.4 Active Flux GTAW 116

References 117

Further Reading 119

Problems 120

5 Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue 122

5.1 Residual Stresses 122

5.2 Distortion 126

5.3 Fatigue 131

5.4 Case Studies 137

References 140

Further Reading 141

Problems 141

II THE FUSION ZONE 143

6 Basic Solidification Concepts 145

6.1 Solute Redistribution during Solidification 145

6.2 Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling 155

6.3 Microsegregation and Banding 160

6.4 Effect of Cooling Rate 163

6.5 Solidification Path 166

References 167

Further Reading 168

Problems 169

7 Weld Metal Solidification I: Grain Structure 170

7.1 Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 170

7.2 Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 172

7.3 Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone 174

7.4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure 174

7.5 Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms 178

7.6 Grain Structure Control 187

References 195

Further Reading 197

Problems 197

8 Weld Metal Solidification II: Microstructure within Grains 199

8.1 Solidification Modes 199

8.2 Dendrite and Cell Spacing 204

8.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 206

8.4 Refining Microstructure within Grains 209

References 213

Further Reading 213

Problems 214

9 Post-Solidification Phase Transformations 216

9.1 Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds 216

9.2 Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon, Low-Alloy Steel Welds 232

References 239

Further Reading 241

Problems 241

10 Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities 243

10.1 Microsegregation 243

10.2 Banding 249

10.3 Inclusions and Gas Porosity 250

10.4 Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary 252

10.5 Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal 255

References 260

Further Reading 261

Problems 261

11 Weld Metal Solidification Cracking 263

11.1 Characteristics, Cause, and Testing 263

11.2 Metallurgical Factors 268

11.3 Mechanical Factors 284

11.4 Reducing Solidification Cracking 285

11.5 Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan 295

References 296

Further Reading 299

Problems 299

III THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE 301

12 Formation of the Partially Melted Zone 303

12.1 Evidence of Liquation 303

12.2 Liquation Mechanisms 304

12.3 Directional Solidification of Liquated Material 314

12.4 Grain Boundary Segregation 314

12.5 Grain Boundary Solidification Modes 316

12.6 Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons 318

References 318

Problems 319

13 Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone 321

13.1 Liquation Cracking 321

13.2 Loss of Strength and Ductility 328

13.3 Hydrogen Cracking 328

13.4 Remedies 330

References 336

Problems 338

IV THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE 341

14 Work-Hardened Materials 343

14.1 Background 343

14.2 Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding 347

14.3 Effect of Welding Parameters and Process 349

References 351

Further Reading 352

Problems 352

15 Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys 353

15.1 Background 353

15.2 Al–Cu–Mg and Al–Mg–Si Alloys 359

15.3 Al–Zn–Mg Alloys 367

15.4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys 370

References 371

Further Reading 372

Problems 372

16 Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys 375

16.1 Background 375

16.2 Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength 379

16.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking 384

References 390

Further Reading 392

Problems 392

17 Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon and Alloy Steels 393

17.1 Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams 393

17.2 Carbon Steels 396

17.3 Low-Alloy Steels 404

17.4 Hydrogen Cracking 410

17.5 Reheat Cracking 418

17.6 Lamellar Tearing 422

17.7 Case Studies 425

References 427

Further Reading 429

Problems 430

18 Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels 431

18.1 Classification of Stainless Steels 431

18.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels 433

18.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels 446

18.4 Martensitic Stainless Steels 449

18.5 Case Study: Failure of a Pipe 451

References 452

Further Reading 453

Problems 454

Index 455

""…well presented, comprehensive, and accurate…a welcome addition to the bookshelves of metallurgists, academics, postgraduate students, as well as non-specialized engineers…"" (JOM, February 26, 2004)

""The second edition, a valuable resource for practitioners, researchers and students, contains more exercises and offers a solution manual upon request..."" (Materials Evaluation, February 2003)

""For many years this review has been looking, without success, for a book on the metallurgy of welding. This...second edition fulfills all those needs and expectations...all those who need a basic understanding of...welds will greatly benefit...a valuable acquisition…highly recommended."" (Choice, Vol. 40, No. 7, March 2003)

  • For instructor's resources email the editorial department at ialine@wiley.com