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Whey Protein Production, Chemistry, Functionality, and Applications

E-Book

$159.99

Whey Protein Production, Chemistry, Functionality, and Applications

Mingruo Guo (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-25604-5 January 2019 280 Pages

Description

An up-to-date overview of the dynamic field of whey protein utilization 

Whey Protein Production, Chemistry, Functionality and Applications explores the science and technology behind the rapidly increasing popularity of this most versatile of dairy by-products. With its richly nutritious qualities, whey protein has been widely used in the food industry for many years. The last decade has, however, seen manufacturers develop many innovative and exciting new applications for it, both in food and other areas.

Taking account of these advances, this insightful work offers a full explanation of the technological and chemical breakthroughs that have made whey protein more in-demand than ever before. Topics covered include manufacturing technologies, thermal and chemical modifications, non-food uses, denaturation and interactions, and more. In its broad scope, the book encompasses:   

  • An up-to-date overview of recent developments and new applications
  • Breakdowns of the chemical, nutritional, and functional properties of whey protein
  • Commentary on the current and future outlooks of the whey protein market
  • Examinations of the methods and manufacturing technologies that enable whey protein recovery
  • A full guide to the numerous applications of whey protein in food production and other industries

Whey Protein Production, Chemistry, Functionality and Applications is an unparalleled source of information on this highly adaptable and much sought-after commodity, and is essential reading for food and dairy scientists, researchers and graduate students, and professionals working in the food formulation and dairy processing industries.

List of contributors xi

Preface xiii

1 History of Whey Production and Whey Protein Manufacturing 1
Mingruo Guo and Guorong Wang

1.1 Types of Whey 1

1.1.1 Cheese Whey 2

1.1.2 Acid Whey 4

1.2 Whey Utilization 5

1.2.1 Ancient Wisdom 6

1.2.2 Early Industrial Efforts 6

1.2.3 Modern Advancement 7

1.3 Major Commercial Available Whey Products 7

1.3.1 Lactose 7

1.3.2 Whey Powder 7

1.3.3 Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) and Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) 8

1.3.4 Whey Protein Fraction Products 8

1.3.5 Milk Mineral Products 9

1.4 Summary 9

References 9

2 Manufacturing Technologies of Whey Protein Products 13
Guorong Wang and Mingruo Guo

2.1 Whey Protein Recovery Technology 14

2.1.1 Heat/Acid Precipitation 14

2.1.2 Membrane Filtration Technology 15

2.2 Whey Protein Fractionation 17

2.2.1 α‐LA and β‐LG Separation 19

2.2.2 GMP Separation 23

2.2.3 BSA and Immunoglobulin Fractionations 25

2.2.4 Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase Fractionations 25

2.3 Whey Products Processing 26

2.3.1 Clarification, Separation and Pasteurization of Liquid Whey 28

2.3.2 Membrane Filtration 29

2.3.3 De‐mineralization 30

2.3.4 Concentration 30

2.3.5 Drying 31

2.4 Summary 31

References 32

3 Chemistry of Whey Proteins 39
Mingruo Guo and Cuina Wang

3.1 β‐Lactoglobulin 39

3.1.1 Chemistry of β‐Lactoglobulin 39

3.1.2 Isolation and Preparation of β‐Lactoglobulin 42

3.1.3 Biological Properties of β‐Lactoglobulin 44

3.2 α‐Lactalbumin 46

3.2.1 Chemistry of α‐Lactalbumin 46

3.2.2 Isolation of α‐Lactalbumin 49

3.2.3 Functions of α‐Lactalbumin 49

3.3 Bovine Serum Albumin 50

3.4 Lactoferrin 52

3.5 Immunoglobulin 54

3.6 Minor Proteins 55

3.6.1 Growth Factors 55

3.6.2 Lactoperoxidase 55

3.6.3 Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins 56

3.6.4 Vitamin Binding Proteins 57

3.7 Summary 57

References 57

4 Whey Protein Structure and Denaturation and Interactions with Other Food Components 67
Cuina Wang and Mingruo Guo

4.1 Whey Protein Structure and Denaturation 67

4.1.1 Thermal Denaturation 67

4.1.2 Enzymatic Modification of Whey Protein 69

4.1.3 Ultrasonic‐Induced Denaturation of Whey Protein 70

4.1.4 Radiation‐Induced Denaturation of Whey Protein 72

4.2 Roles of Thiol Group and Disulfide Bonds in Whey Protein Aggregation and Gelation 73

4.2.1 Roles of Thiol Group and Disulfide Bonds in Whey Protein Aggregation 73

4.2.2 Roles of Thiol Group and Disulfide Bonds in Whey Protein Gelation 74

4.3 Whey Protein and Casein Interactions 75

4.3.1 Whey Protein and Casein Interactions in Model System 75

4.3.2 Whey Protein and Casein Micelle Interaction in Milk 76

4.4 Whey Protein and Carbohydrate Interactions 77

4.4.1 Maillard Reaction Between Whey Protein and Carbohydrate 77

4.4.2 Interactions Between Whey Protein and Polysaccharides in Solution 80

4.5 Whey Protein and Other Food Components Interactions 87

4.5.1 Gelatin 87

4.5.2 Lecithin 89

4.6 Summary 90

References 90

5 Nutritional Properties of Whey Proteins 103
Kelsey M. Mangano, Yihong Bao, and Changhui Zhao

5.1 Amino Acid Profile: Whey Protein vs. Breast Milk Protein 103

5.2 Branched‐Chain Amino Acids in Whey Protein 104

5.3 Whey Protein Derivatives 105

5.4 Whey Protein Allergenicity and Digestibility 106

5.5 Therapeutic Properties of Whey Protein Components 107

5.5.1 Diabetes 107

5.5.2 Cancer 108

5.5.3 Liver Disease 109

5.5.4 Cardiovascular Disease 110

5.5.5 Diseases of the Immune System 110

5.6 Antioxidant Properties of Whey Proteins 111

5.6.1 The Antioxidant Activity of Total Whey Protein 112

5.6.2 The Antioxidant Activity of Individual Whey Protein Fractions 114

5.6.3 Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Whey Protein 120

5.6.4 The Application of Antioxidant Activity of Whey Protein in Food 124

5.7 Summary 128

References 128

6 Nutritional Applications of Whey Protein 141
Mingruo Guo and Guorong Wang

6.1 Infant Formula 141

6.1.1 Whey Protein/Casein Ratio 141

6.1.2 Formulation and Process of Infant Formula 142

6.1.3 Whey Protein for the Next Generation Infant Formula 144

6.2 Sports Nutrition 145

6.2.1 Protein Metabolism 145

6.2.2 Whey Protein in Jug 147

6.2.3 Acidified Whey Protein Nutritional Beverage 147

6.2.4 Protein Bar 149

6.3 Protein Supplements for the Elderly 150

6.4 Meal Replacement 150

6.5 High Protein Symbiotic Yogurt 151

6.6 Summary 153

References 153

7 Whey Protein Functional Properties and Applications in Food Formulation 157
Cuina Wang, Adam Killpatrick, Alyssa Humphrey, and Mingruo Guo

7.1 Food Thickener/Gelling Agent 157

7.2 Food Stabilizer/Emulsifier 159

7.2.1 Technologies Used to Characterize Whey Protein Based Emulsions 160

7.2.2 Formation of Whey Protein Based Emulsion 161

7.2.3 Stability of Whey Protein Stabilized Emulsions 163

7.2.4 Stability of Whey Protein/Hydrocolloid Based Emulsions 164

7.2.5 Stability of Whey Protein Based Emulsions in Presence of Other Emulsifiers 166

7.3 Fat or Dairy Replacer 166

7.4 Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals Carriers 167

7.4.1 Carotenoids 168

7.4.2 Polyphenols 169

7.5 Microencapsulating Agent 171

7.5.1 Preparation of Whey Protein Based Flavor and Lipid Microcapsule 171

7.5.2 Microencapsulation of Probiotics 177

7.5.3 Application of Microencapsulated Probiotics in Food 180

7.5.4 Microencapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients 181

7.6 Films and Coating 182

7.6.1 Parameters for the Film and Coating 182

7.6.2 Whey Protein Based Film/Coating 183

7.6.3 Composition of Whey Protein Based Film/Coating 184

7.6.4 Physical Properties of Whey Protein/Polysaccharide Composite Film 188

7.6.5 Application of Whey Protein Coating in Food Industry 189

7.7 Summary 192

References 193

8 Modifications of Whey Protein 205
Mingruo Guo and Xue Shen

8.1 Thermal Treatment 205

8.2 Enzymatic Treatment 208

8.2.1 Cross‐Linking by Transglutaminase 208

8.2.2 Enzymatic Hydrolysis 210

8.3 Ultrasound Treatment 210

8.4 High Pressure Treatment 212

8.5 Electric Pulse 213

8.6 Radiation Treatment 215

8.6.1 Gamma Irradiation 215

8.6.2 Ultraviolet Irradiation 215

8.7 Chemical Modifications 216

8.8 Summary 218

References 218

9 Applications of Whey Protein in Non‐food Uses 227
Mingruo Guo, Wenbo Wang, Zhenhua Gao, Guorong Wang, and Liang Li

9.1 Adhesion Theory 227

9.1.1 Adsorption Theory 228

9.1.2 Mechanical Interlocking 228

9.1.3 Chemical Bonding Theory 229

9.2 Wood Varnish/Finish 229

9.3 Wood Adhesive 232

9.4 Office Adhesive 243

9.5 Tissue Adhesive 247

9.6 Summary 247

References 248

10 Future Development of Whey Protein Production 251
Mingruo Guo and Guorong Wang

10.1 The Growing Demand of Whey Protein 251

10.2 Greek Yogurt Boom and Acid Whey 252

10.3 Microfiltered Milk and Serum Protein 254

10.4 Potential Challenges of Whey Protein in the Future 256

10.5 Summary 257

References 257

Index 261