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Wi-Fi Integration to the 4G Mobile Network

Wi-Fi Integration to the 4G Mobile Network

André Pérez

ISBN: 978-1-119-51645-3

Mar 2018, Wiley-ISTE

288 pages

$116.99

Description

The adoption of smartphones has had as a corollary the use of services that require streaming, such as video streaming, which is a constraint for the 4G mobile network. The integration of the network of Wi-Fi hotspots deployed by the operators adds capacity to the 4G mobile network.
The use of Wi-Fi technology in carrier networks is the result of developments coordinated by the IEEE, WFA and WBA standardization bodies. For its part, the 3GPP standardization body has been working to integrate Wi-Fi technology into the 4G mobile network.
The first part of this book presents the characteristics of the Wi-Fi radio interface. The different IEEE 802.11b / g / n / ac physical layers characterize the implementation in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency bands and U- NII at 5 GHz. The MAC layer defines a number of media access procedures such as scanning, associating, or transferring data.
The second part of this book deals with the architecture of the 4G network based on the Wi-Fi interface. This architecture defines several models corresponding, on the one hand, to Wi-Fi access controlled or not, On the other hand, to a handover controlled by the network or by the mobile. The integration of Wi-Fi technology resulted in a redefinition of attachment and session set-up procedures.
Smartphones have the ability to activate simultaneously the two radio interfaces, LTE and Wi-Fi, which allows to direct certain services to one and / or the other of the interfaces. The ANDSF and HotSpot 2.0 functions provide the mobile with rules for network selection and traffic control to determine which traffic is to be routed to what type of interface.

List of Abbreviations xi

Introduction xxiii

Chapter 1 Architecture Based on Wi-Fi Access  1

1.1 Functional architecture   1

1.1.1 Architecture based on the S2a interface 1

1.1.2 Architecture based on the S2b interface 4

1.1.3 Architecture based on the S2c interface 7

1.2 Tunnel establishment   8

1.2.1 Architecture based on the S2a interface 8

1.2.2 Architecture based on the S2b interface 12

1.2.3 Architecture based on the S2c interface 13

1.3 DIAMETER protocol   14

1.3.1 AAA server interfaces 15

1.3.2 PCRF interfaces   20

Chapter 2 MAC Layer 23

2.1 Frame structure 23

2.1.1 Frame header 23

2.1.2 Structure of control frames   25

2.1.3 Structure of management frames  26

2.2 Procedures   30

2.2.1 Timers   30

2.2.2 Mobile registration   30

2.2.3 Data transfer 32

2.2.4 Clear channel assessment 34

2.2.5 Frame fragmentation  36

2.2.6 Standby management 36

2.3 Security   38

2.3.1 Security mechanism  38

2.3.2 Security policies   39

2.3.3 MAC header extension 39

2.4 Quality of service 46

2.4.1 EDCA mechanism   46

2.4.2 Impact on the MAC header   48

Chapter 3 802.11a/g Interfaces 49

3.1 802.11a interface 49

3.1.1 PLCP sub-layer   49

3.1.2 PMD sub-layer   51

3.2 802.11g interface 58

3.2.1 PLCP sub-layer   58

3.2.2 PMD sub-layer   61

Chapter 4 802.11n Interface  63

4.1 MAC layer evolution   63

4.1.1 Management frames  64

4.1.2 Structure of the MAC header  66

4.1.3 Frame aggregation   68

4.1.4 Control frames   70

4.2 PLCP sub-layer 72

4.3 PMD sub-layer  75

4.3.1 Transmission chain   75

4.3.2 Frequency plan   78

4.3.3 Frequency multiplexing 78

4.3.4 Space multiplexing   79

4.3.5 Modulation and coding scheme  81

Chapter 5 802.11ac Interface 85

5.1 MAC layer   85

5.1.1 Management frame evolution  85

5.1.2 Control frames   89

5.1.3 MAC header structure 90

5.2 PLCP sub-layer 92

5.3 PMD sub-layer  94

5.3.1 Transmission chain   94

5.3.2 Frequency plan   99

5.3.3 Frequency multiplexing 100

5.3.4 Spatial multiplexing  101

5.3.5 Modulation and coding scheme  102

Chapter 6 Mutual Authentication   105

6.1 802.1x mechanism 105

6.1.1 EAPOL protocol   107

6.1.2 EAP   109

6.1.3 RADIUS messages   111

6.1.4 Authentication procedure 112

6.2 Key management 114

6.2.1 Key hierarchy 114

6.2.2 Four-way handshake procedure  115

6.2.3 Group Key Handshake procedure 116

6.3 Application to the 4G mobile network 117

6.3.1 EAP-AKA method   117

6.3.2 Mutual authentication procedure  118

6.3.3 Procedure for rapid renewal of authentication  121

6.3.4 Application to the MIPv4 FA mechanism   122

Chapter 7 SWu Tunnel Establishment 125

7.1 IPSec mechanism 125

7.1.1 Header extensions   127

7.1.2 IKEv2 protocol   131

7.1.3 Procedure  137

7.2 Application to the 4G mobile network 142

7.2.1 SWu tunnel establishment procedure 142

7.2.2 Procedure for rapid renewal of authentication  145

Chapter 8 S2a/S2b Tunnel Establishment 147

8.1 PMIPv6 mechanism   147

8.1.1 Mobility extension   148

8.1.2 Procedures  149

8.1.3 Application to the 4G mobile network 151

8.2 GTPv2 mechanism   155

8.2.1 Trusted Wi-Fi access  156

8.2.2 Untrusted Wi-Fi access 158

8.3 MIPv4 FA mechanism   158

8.3.1 Components of mobility 158

8.3.2 Foreign agent discovery 159

8.3.3 Registration 160

8.3.4 Procedure  160

8.3.5 Application to the 4G mobile network 162

Chapter 9 S2c Tunnel Establishment  165

9.1 MIPv6 mechanism 165

9.1.1 IPv6 header extensions 166

9.1.2 ICMPv6 messages   169

9.1.3 Procedures  171

9.2 DSMIPv6 mechanism   177

9.3 Application to the 4G mobile network 178

9.3.1 Trusted Wi-Fi access  178

9.3.2 Untrusted Wi-Fi access 179

9.3.3 IFOM function   180

Chapter 10 Network Discovery and Selection   183

10.1 Mechanisms defined by 3GPP organization 183

10.1.1 ANDSF function   183

10.1.2 RAN assistance   191

10.2 Mechanisms defined by IEEE and WFA organizations   192

10.2.1 Information elements provided by the beacon  194

10.2.2 Information elements provided by the ANQP server  195

Chapter 11 Carrier Aggregation 201

11.1 Functional architecture  201

11.2 Protocol architecture   202

11.2.1 LWA   202

11.2.2 LWIP aggregation   205

11.2.3 LAA aggregation   207

11.3 Procedures   207

11.3.1 LWA   207

11.3.2 LWIP aggregation   211

11.3.3 LAA aggregation   212

11.4 PDCP 214

Chapter 12 MPTCP Aggregation   217

12.1 Functional architecture  217

12.2 TCP  218

12.2.1 TCP header 218

12.2.2 Opening and closing a connection   220

12.2.3 Data transfer 221

12.2.4 Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance mechanisms   221

12.2.5 Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery mechanisms 222

12.2.6 ECN mechanism   224

12.3 MPTCP   226

12.3.1 Establishment of MPTCP connection 227

12.3.2 Adding a TCP connection   227

12.3.3 Data transfer 229

12.3.4 Closing an MPTCP connection  231

12.3.5 Adding and removing an address 233

12.3.6 Return to the TCP connection  234

Bibliography 235

Index   239