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Wideband RF Technologies and Antennas in Microwave Frequencies

Wideband RF Technologies and Antennas in Microwave Frequencies

Dr. Albert Sabban

ISBN: 978-1-119-04864-0

Jun 2016

464 pages

Description

Presents wideband RF technologies and antennas in the microwave band and millimeter-wave band

This book provides an up-to-date introduction to the technologies, design, and test procedures of RF components and systems at microwave frequencies. The book begins with a review of the elementary electromagnetics and antenna topics needed for students and engineers with no basic background in electromagnetic and antenna theory. These introductory chapters will allow readers to study and understand the basic design principles and features of RF and communication systems for communications and medical applications. After this introduction, the author examines MIC, MMIC, MEMS, and LTCC technologies. The text will also present information on meta-materials, design of microwave and mm wave systems, along with a look at microwave and mm wave receivers, transmitters and antennas.

  • Discusses printed antennas for wireless communication systems and wearable antennas for communications and medical applications
  • Presents design considerations with both computed and measured results of RF communication modules and CAD tools
  • Includes end-of-chapter problems and exercises

Wideband RF Technologies and Antennas in Microwave Frequencies is designed to help electrical engineers and undergraduate students to understand basic communication and RF systems definition, electromagnetic and antennas theory and fundamentals with minimum integral and differential equations.

Albert Sabban, PhD, is a Senior Researcher and Lecturer at Ort Braude College Karmiel Israel. Dr. Sabban was RF and antenna specialist at communication and Biomedical Hi-tech Companies. He designed wearable compact antennas to medical systems. From 1976 to 2007, Dr. Albert Sabban worked as a senior R&D scientist and project leader in RAFAEL.

Acknowledgments xiii

Author Biography xv

Preface xxv

1 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation and Applications 1

1.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum, 1

1.2 Free-Space Propagation, 4

1.3 Friis Transmission Formula, 6

1.4 Link Budget Examples, 8

1.5 Noise, 9

1.6 Communication System Link Budget, 11

1.7 Path Loss, 13

1.8 Receiver Sensitivity, 13

1.9 Receivers: Definitions and Features, 14

1.10 Types of Radars, 16

1.11 Transmitters: Definitions and Features, 16

References, 18

2 Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines for RF Designers 19

2.1 Definitions, 19

2.2 Electromagnetic Waves, 20

2.3 Transmission Lines, 25

2.4 Matching Techniques, 29

2.5 Coaxial Transmission Line, 34

2.6 Microstrip Line, 36

2.7 Materials, 39

2.8 Waveguides, 43

2.9 Circular Waveguide, 48

References, 54

3 Basic Antennas for Communication Systems 57

3.1 Introduction to Antennas, 57

3.2 Antenna Parameters, 58

3.3 Dipole Antenna, 60

3.4 Basic Aperture Antennas, 66

3.5 Horn Antennas, 69

3.6 Antenna Arrays for Communication Systems, 80

References, 88

4 MIC and MMIC Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technologies 91

4.1 Introduction, 91

4.2 Microwave Integrated Circuits Modules, 92

4.3 Development and Fabrication of a Compact Integrated RF Head for Inmarsat-M Ground Terminal, 92

4.4 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits, 100

4.5 Conclusions, 111

References, 111

5 Printed Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems 113

5.1 Printed Antennas, 113

5.2 Two Layers Stacked Microstrip Antennas, 119

5.3 Stacked Monopulse Ku Band Patch Antenna, 122

5.4 Loop Antennas, 123

5.5 Wired Loop Antenna, 132

5.6 Radiation Pattern of a Loop Antenna Near a Metal Sheet, 133

5.7 Planar Inverted-F Antenna, 136

References, 140

6 MIC and MMIC Millimeter-Wave Receiving Channel Modules 141

6.1 18–40 GHz Compact RF Modules, 141

6.2 18–40 GHz Front End, 141

6.3 18–40 GHz Integrated Compact Switched Filter Bank Module, 154

6.4 FSU Performance, 163

6.5 FSU Design and Analysis, 171

6.6 FSU Fabrication, 181

6.7 Conclusions, 184

References, 185

7 Integrated Outdoor Unit for Millimeter-Wave Satellite Communication Applications 187

7.1 The ODU Description, 187

7.2 The Low Noise Unit: LNB, 191

7.3 SSPA Output Power Requirements, 191

7.4 Isolation Between Receiving and Transmitting Channels, 192

7.5 SSPA, 192

7.6 The ODU Mechanical Package, 194

7.7 Low Noise and Low-cost K-band Compact Receiving Channel for VSAT Satellite Communication Ground Terminal, 195

7.8 Ka-band Integrated High Power Amplifiers, SSPA, for VSAT Satellite Communication Ground Terminal, 200

7.9 Conclusions, 205

References, 206

8 MIC and MMIC Integrated RF Heads 209

8.1 Integrated Ku-band Automatic Tracking System, 209

8.2 Super Compact X-band Monopulse Transceiver, 233

References, 243

9 MIC and MMIC Components and Modules Design 245

9.1 Introduction, 245

9.2 Passive Elements, 245

9.3 Power Dividers and Combiners, 249

9.4 RF Amplifiers, 256

9.5 Linearity of RF Amplifiers and Active Devices, 262

9.6 Wideband Phased Array Direction Finding System, 270

9.7 Conclusions, 277

References, 279

10 Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Technology 281

10.1 Introduction, 281

10.2 MEMS Technology, 281

10.3 W-band MEMS Detection Array, 285

10.4 Array Fabrication and Measurement, 291

10.5 Mutual Coupling Effects Between Pixels, 293

10.6 MEMS Bow-tie Dipole with Bolometer, 294

10.7 220 GHz Microstrip Patch Antenna, 294

10.8 Conclusions, 294

References, 297

11 Low-Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) Technology 299

11.1 Introduction, 299

11.2 LTCC and HTCC Technology Features, 300

11.3 LTCC and HTCC Technology Process, 301

11.4 Design of High-pass LTCC Filters, 301

11.5 Comparison of Single-layer and Multilayer Microstrip Circuits, 305

11.6 LTCC Multilayer Technology Design Considerations, 308

11.7 Capacitor and Inductor Quality (Q) Factor, 310

11.8 Summary of LTCC Process Advantages and Limitations, 312

11.9 Conclusions, 312

References, 313

12 Advanced Antenna Technologies for Communication System 315

12.1 New Wideband Wearable Metamaterial Antennas for Communication Applications, 315

12.2 Stacked Patch Antenna Loaded with SRR, 325

12.3 Patch Antenna Loaded with Split Ring Resonators, 327

12.4 Metamaterial Antenna Characteristics in Vicinity to the Human Body, 329

12.5 Metamaterial Wearable Antennas, 333

12.6 Wideband Stacked Patch with SRR, 336

12.7 Fractal Printed Antennas, 338

12.8 Antiradar Fractals and/or Multilevel Chaff Dispersers, 341

12.9 Definition of Multilevel Fractal Structure, 342

12.10 Advanced Antenna System, 344

12.11 Applications of Fractal Printed Antennas, 348

12.12 Conclusions, 364

References, 367

13 Wearable Communication and Medical Systems 369

13.1 Wearable Antennas for Communication and Medical Applications, 369

13.2 Dually Polarized Wearable 434 MHz Printed Antenna, 370

13.3 Loop Antenna with Ground Plane, 374

13.4 Antenna S11 Variation as Function of Distance from Body, 377

13.5 Wearable Antennas, 381

13.6 Compact Dual-Polarized Printed Antenna, 385

13.7 Compact Wearable RFID Antennas, 385

13.8 434 MHz Receiving Channel for Communication and Medical Systems, 394

13.9 Conclusions, 395

References, 398

14 RF Measurements 401

14.1 Introduction, 401

14.2 Multiport Networks with N-ports, 402

14.3 Scattering Matrix, 403

14.4 S-Parameters Measurements, 404

14.5 Transmission Measurements, 407

14.6 Output Power and Linearity Measurements, 409

14.7 Power Input Protection Measurement, 409

14.8 Nonharmonic Spurious Measurements, 410

14.9 Switching Time Measurements, 410

14.10 IP2 Measurements, 410

14.11 IP3 Measurements, 412

14.12 Noise Figure Measurements, 414

14.13 Antenna Measurements, 414

14.14 Antenna Range Setup, 419

References, 420

Index 421