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Wiley Pathways Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism With an Emergency Management Perspective

Wiley Pathways Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism With an Emergency Management Perspective

David A. McEntire

ISBN: 978-0-470-46579-0

Dec 2008

368 pages

$48.00

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Description

Readers need to be aware more than ever before of the increased number of threats this country faces. Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism with an Emergency Management Perspective provides important and up-to-date information about terrorism, terrorist behavior, homeland security policies and dilemmas, and how to deal effectively with threats and the consequences of attacks. This book provides a foundation that spans the readily apparent chasm between the disaster and homeland security communities. Its focus on terrorism may help to educate those who do not yet understand the need to prepare for this significant threat. Its concentration on emergency management will remind homeland security officials that reinventing of the wheel is not only unnecessary, but problematic. Introduction to Homeland Security will be useful to scholars, students, and practitioners interested or involved in homeland security and emergency management.

Related Resources

CHAPTER 1. UNDERSTANDING A NEW NATIONAL PRIORITY: 9/11, HOMELAND SECURITY, AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT 1

Introduction 2

1.1 9/11: A Wake-up Call 2

Self-Check 3

1.2 A Growing Threat 4

Self-Check 6

1.3 The Nature of Homeland Security 6

Self-Check 10

1.4 Disciplines Involved in Homeland Security and the Emergency Management Profession 11

1.4.1 The Role of Emergency Management 11

1.4.2 Important Terminology 15

Self-Check 17

Summary 17

Assess Your Understanding 18

Be a Homeland Security Professional 20

Key Terms 21

References 23

CHAPTER 2. IDENTIFYING TERRORISM: IDEOLOGICALLY MOTIVATED ACTS OF VIOLENCE 25

Introduction 26

2.1 Defining Terrorism 26

Self-Check 28

2.2 Common Characteristics of Terrorism 28

Self-Check 29

2.3 Types of Terrorism 29

Self-Check 32

2.4 Relation of Terrorism to Other Disasters 32

Self-Check 35

Summary 35

Assess Your Understanding 36

Be a Homeland Security Professional 38

Key Terms 39

References 40

CHAPTER 3. RECOGNIZING THE CAUSES OF TERRORISM: DIFFERING PERSPECTIVES AND THE ROLE  OF IDEOLOGY 41

Introduction 42

3.1 Frequently Mentioned Causes 42

3.1.1 Historical Grievances 42

3.1.2 U.S. Foreign Policy 43

3.1.3 Poverty 45

Self-Check 45

3.2 Political Causes 46

3.2.1 Politics 46

3.2.2 Political Systems 47

3.2.3 Political Functions 48

3.2.4 Political Structure 48

Self-Check 50

3.3 Cultural and Religious Causes 50

3.3.1 Cultural Dimensions of Terrorism 50

3.3.2 The Role of Religion in Terrorism 51

Self-Check 53

3.4 Ideology 54

3.4.1 Understanding Ideologies 54

3.4.2 Ideological Dimensions and Terrorism 55

Self-Check 57

Summary 57

Assess Your Understanding 58

Be a Homeland Security Professional 59

Key Terms 60

References 62

CHAPTER 4. COMPREHENDING TERRORISTS AND THEIR BEHAVIOR: WHO THEY ARE AND WHAT THEY DO 63

Introduction 64

4.1 Terrorists and Terrorist Organizations 64

4.1.1 Classifying Terrorists 67

Self-Check 69

4.2 Personal Characteristics of Terrorists 69

4.2.1 Distinct Differences 70

Self-Check 72

4.3 The Behavior and Tactics of Terrorists 72

4.3.1 Propaganda 72

4.3.2 Recruiting 73

4.3.3 Financing 74

4.3.4 Training 75

4.3.5 False Documents, Travel, and Safe Haven 76

4.3.6 Code Words and Secret Communications 77

4.3.7 Planning 77

4.3.8 Obtaining Weapons 79

4.3.9 Initiating Acts of Civil Disorder or Terrorism 79

Self-Check 81

Summary 81

Assess Your Understanding 82

Be a Homeland Security Professional 84

Key Terms 84

References 86

CHAPTER 5. UNCOVERING THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF TERRORISM: HISTORY AND CHANGE OVER TIME 87

Introduction 88

5.1 The Appearance of Terrorism 88

Self-Check 90

5.2 The Evolution of Terrorism Abroad 90

Self-Check 93

5.3 Terrorism and the United States 94

Self-Check 97

5.4 Terrorism Today 97

Self-Check 101

Summary 101

Assess Your Understanding 102

Be a Homeland Security Professional 104

Key Terms 105

References 106

CHAPTER 6. EVALUATING A MAJOR DILEMMA: TERRORISM, THE MEDIA, AND CENSORSHIP 107

Introduction 108

6.1 Changes in the Media over Time 108

Self-Check 109

6.2 Terrorists and the Media 109

Self-Check 112

6.3 The Media and Terrorism 112

Self-Check 115

6.4 Government and the Media 115

Self-Check 116

6.5 Censorship and Self-Censorship 117

Self-Check 120

Summary 120

Assess Your Understanding 121

Be a Homeland Security Professional 122

Key Terms 123

References 124

CHAPTER 7. CONTEMPLATING A QUANDARY: TERRORISM, SECURITY, AND LIBERTY 125

Introduction 126

7.1 War, Terrorism, and Law 126

Self-Check 128

7.2 Security and Liberty 128

Self-Check 131

7.3 Cases and Considerations 131

Self-Check 136

Summary 136

Assess Your Understanding 137

Be a Homeland Security Professional 139

Key Terms 139

References 140

CHAPTER 8. PREVENTING TERRORIST ATTACKS: ROOT CAUSES, LAW, INTELLIGENCE, COUNTER TERRORISM, AND BORDER CONTROL 141

Introduction 142

8.1 Addressing Root Causes 142

Self-Check 144

8.2 Policy and Legislation 144

8.2.1 Laws Prior to 9/11 144

8.2.2 Legislation after 9/11 145

Self-Check 148

8.3 Intelligence 148

8.3.1 The Need for Intelligence 149

8.3.2 The Intelligence Cycle 150

8.3.3 Challenges Facing the Intelligence Community 151

8.3.4 Successes 154

Self-Check 155

8.4 Counter-terrorism 156

8.4.1 Risky Operations 157

8.4.2 Learning from Other Nations 158

8.4.3 Controversy Regarding Counter-terrorism 160

Self-Check 161

8.5 Border Control 162

8.5.1 What Is the Border? 162

8.5.2 Our Porous Border 162

8.5.3 Participants Involved in Border Control 164

8.5.4 Measures to Secure Borders 165

Self-Check 168

Summary 168

Assess Your Understanding 169

Be a Homeland Security Professional 171

Key Terms 172

References 175

CHAPTER 9. PROTECTING AGAINST POTENTIAL ATTACKS: THREAT ASSESSMENT AND SECURITY ENHANCEMENT 177

Introduction 178

9.1 Assessing Threats 178

9.1.1 Critical Infrastructure, Key Assets, and Soft Targets 178

9.1.2 Working with Others to Identify Threats 182

9.1.3 Points of Consideration 184

Self-Check 188

9.2 Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation 188

9.2.1 Architectural Design and Construction 189

9.2.2 Zoning and Set Back Regulations 190

9.2.3 Other Security Measures 191

Self-Check 195

Summary 195

Assess Your Understanding 196

Be a Homeland Security Professional 198

Key Terms 198

References 200

CHAPTER 10. PREPARING FOR THE UNTHINKABLE: READINESS FOR TERRORISM 201

Introduction 202

10.1 The Importance and Nature of Preparedness 202

10.1.1 Federal and State Initiatives 203

Self-Check 208

10.2 Setting the Foundation 208

10.2.1 Preparedness Councils 208

10.2.2 Ordinances 209

10.2.3 Budgets and Grants 210

10.2.4 EOC 212

Self-Check 213

10.3 Planning 214

Self-Check 216

10.4 Other Measures 216

10.4.1 Training 216

10.4.2 Exercises 217

10.4.3 Community Education 219

Self-Check 222

Summary 222

Assess Your Understanding 223

Be a Homeland Security Professional 225

Key Terms 226

References 228

CHAPTER 11. RESPONDING TO ATTACKS: IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS AND COORDINATION MECHANISMS 229

Introduction 230

11.1 Major Priorities 230

11.1.1 Safety and Security 231

11.1.2 Search and Rescue 233

11.1.3 Medical Care and Triage 233

11.1.4 Decontamination 234

11.1.5 Investigation 235

Self-Check 237

11.2 Other Crucial Functions 237

11.2.1 Warning, Intelligence, and Public Information 237

11.2.2 Evacuation and Sheltering 239

Self-Check 241

11.3 Coordination Mechanisms 242

11.3.1 The Incident Command System 243

11.3.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of ICS 245

11.3.3 Using Emergency Operations Centers 246

11.3.4 Managing EOCs 248

Self-Check 249

Summary 249

Assess Your Understanding 250

Be a Homeland Security Professional 252

Key Terms 253

References 255

CHAPTER 12. RECOVERING FROM IMPACTS: SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEASURES 257

Introduction 258

12.1 Initial Steps 258

12.1.1 Assessing Damages 258

12.1.2 Damage Assessment Concerns and Procedures 259

12.1.3 Declaring a Disaster and Seeking Help 260

Self-Check 262

12.2 Key Functions 262

12.2.1 Mass Fatality Management 262

12.2.2 Debris Management 264

12.2.3 Emotional Issues 265

Self-Check 267

12.3 The Importance of Disaster Assistance 267

12.3.1 Volunteer and Donation Management 268

12.3.2 Individual and Public Assistance 270

12.3.3 Novel Approaches 271

Self-Check 274

Summary 274

Assess Your Understanding 275

Be a Homeland Security Professional 277

Key Terms 277

References 279

CHAPTER 13. LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE: FORTHCOMING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 281

Introduction 282

13.1 The Future of Terrorism and WMD 282

Self-Check 286

13.2 Radiological Weapons 286

Self-Check 291

13.3 Nuclear Weapons 291

Self-Check 294

13.4 Biological Weapons 294

Self-Check 298

13.5 Chemical Weapons 299

Self-Check 303

13.6 Accountability and Policy in Homeland Security 303

Self-Check 307

Summary 308

Assess Your Understanding 309

Be a Homeland Security Professional 311

Key Terms 312

References 314

Glossary 315

Index 327

 

Pre-test: Pre-reading assessment tool in multiple-choice format. Introduces chapter material and helps students get an idea of what they know and where they need to focus their efforts.