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Windows® NT Server 4 For Dummies®

Windows® NT Server 4 For Dummies®

Ed Tittel, Mary T. Madden, James M. Stewart

ISBN: 978-0-764-50524-9

Mar 1999

432 pages

Select type: Paperback

Product not available for purchase


Become the master of your own domain -- and your Windows NT Server 4 network -- with the practical, plain-English advice and insider tricks you'll discover inside Windows NT Server 4 For Dummies. This unbeatable sourcebook delivers all the information you need to set up and maintain an NT network for a big company, a small business, and anything in between.

Windows NT Server 4 For Dummies takes you straight to the heart of the NT Server environment and covers everything from installation to optimization. Install and configure Windows NT Server 4 software quickly and painlessly; situate servers, hubs, and other important hardware; make the necessary cable and interface connections that enable computers to communicate with each other; and mix and match network topologies to suit your own unique needs. Manage users, groups, shares, and backups in a networked environment, troubleshoot your systems when things go bad, and mediate hardware conflicts with the smart advice that authors Ed Tittel, Mary Madden, and James Michael Stewart bring to your aid.

PART I: Getting Grounded in Networking Basics.

Chapter 1: Demystifying Network Mumbo-Jumbo.

Chapter 2: Understanding Client/Server Networks.

Chapter 3: Matters of Protocol.

Chapter 4: My Kingdom for a Topology!

PART II: Putting Your Hardware in Place.

Chapter 5: Designing a Network.

Chapter 6: Installing Network Interface Cards.

Chapter 7: Linkin' Networks, Not Logs.

Chapter 8: If You Build It, They Will Come!

PART III: Revving Up Your Server.

Chapter 9: Installing Your Server Software.

Chapter 10: Configuring the Network Hardware (Blech!).

Chapter 11: Printing on the Network.

Chapter 12: Next on Montel -- IP Addresses and the Nerds Who Love Them.

Chapter 13: Just Trust Me -- Setting Up Domains and Trusts.

PART IV: Managing Your Network.

Chapter 14: Managing Users with the User Manager.

Chapter 15: Managing Shares and Permissions.

Chapter 16: Backing Up for a Rainy Day.

Chapter 17: Managing Network Security.

PART V: Troubleshooting Network Snafus.

Chapter 18: Using NT Troubleshooting Utilities.

Chapter 19: Nixing Network Problems.

Chapter 20: Solving Printing Problems.

Chapter 21: Solving Hardware Problems.

PART VI: The Part of Tens.

Chapter 22: The Top Ten NT Server Installation and Configuration Tips.

Chapter 23: Ten Ways to Network NT Server -- and Live to Tell the Tale!

Chapter 24: Ten Tips and Tricks for Troubleshooting Windows NT Server.


Book Registration Information.

Bonus Glossary


10Base2 On the Ethernet freak's sanity scale, 10Base2 falls somewhere between 10BaseT and 10Base5. It doesn't weigh as heavily as 10BaseT, has the same properties as 10Base5, and is what most Ethernet networks are composed of. Try it -- if you don't mind the problems a bus topology can cause. 10Base2 is also called "Cheapernet."

10Base5 The cabling that many old networks have. Definitely antiquated Ethernet stuff, this type of cabling is rapidly being replaced by 10BaseT. If you use 10Base5, expect derision from those in the know about LANs, but at least you will work with bulky, heavy, copper media.

10BaseT A cabling option for the Ethernet access method that uses unshielded twisted-pair (not telephone wire) to make its connections. This stuff is cheaper than Cheapernet (10Base2) and more versatile. If you want to be part of the "in crowd," this is the media to use.

access method Messages are communicated across the network by rules called protocols and access methods that govern their access to the network cabling. When you think networking, remember that without an access method, you don't have any on-ramps to the network.

access privileges Similar to having the keys to the candy store, these privileges tell you what you can do with files or directories.

account Have you ever opened a checking account at the bank? Certain restrictions exist, and a variety of plans are available, all aimed at making you "accountable." The account each user has on the LAN works in the same way.

ACL (Access Control List) This is what the security system on most networks uses to control who has access to what. The ACL is a list of users and the systems that they can, and cannot, access.

adapter Like the ignition switch on a car, the adapter gets workstations talking on the LAN. Placed in the workstation's bus, the adapter communicates requests between the workstation and the physical media that connects the LAN.

administrative tools You've got it. The applications used by the administrator to maintain, set up, and troubleshoot the network.

administrative utilities See administrative tools.

administrator The Head Honcho. The person responsible for maintaining setup and support of the network.

aliases If you're on the lam, you have an intimate knowledge of these. Also, if you have a user name different than what appears on your driver's license, then you have experience with aliases, as well.

AppleTalk The name of the set of protocols developed by Apple Computer, whose Macintosh was one of the first mass-market computers to offer built-in networking capabilities. In most cases, where there's a Mac on a network, there's also AppleTalk.

Application log Detailed listing of information for applications: time of access, and users and workstations that have accessed the applications.

applications You cannot have one application without the other. Networks need applications like you need air to breathe. Being without applications is similar to having a car with nowhere to go. Word processing programs, spreadsheets, and e-mail are examples of applications.

architecture The details of a system's design and how its components are configured.

archive To remove old files from the server so there's room for new files. If you ever want any of the old files back, you unarchive them. Archive media can be CD-ROM, WORM, or tape.

ARCNET The economy car of network access methods, ARCNET transmits data at 2.5 Mbps. Like token ring, ARCNET uses a token to make sure that each workstation gets its fair share.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Converts information such as numbers, letters, and punctuation into digital info. It's so popular, even people outside of the United States use it.

attributes The characteristics that define what users can do to the files and directories managed by Windows NT. Attributes vary by user or group and affect whether a file can be copied, deleted, executed, modified, and so on.

AUI (attachment unit interface) The AUI applies to Ethernet NICs. It's the connector that lets the card be cross-wired with a different media, such as unshielded twisted-pair or thin Ethernet.

AUTOEXEC.BAT The file that contains the commands that enable you to start your computer in the manner you want. You load the NIC driver in this file, and you can put the LOGIN command in it.

AUTOEXEC.NCF Like the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, this file is used to boot the server. It lets you load the server drivers and any NLMs the network operating system will use.

back door The secret entrance that network administrators use to get into the network in case something happens to the network administrator's home account.

backbone A network backbone connects file servers in a single, unified internetwork.

backup This term refers to the procedure you should perform on your LAN every night: Save the files on the network to some form of off-line storage.

bad sector An area on a hard disk that for some reason doesn't play back what's recorded. It might be the result of a manufacturing defect or damage to the drive's platters during shipment. The fact is, that area cannot be used. By marking bad sectors in the drive's manufacturing process, manufacturers now save you the time you would have spent finding them yourself.

base I/O address Many devices have an I/O address that identifies them to the system, just as your address lets you get junk mail. See also I/O address.

base memory Like the IRQs and DMA, the base memory setting on a NIC must be unique. You have to watch for potential address conflicts and steer around them, and you'll typically use jumpers to set the base memory address. Common settings for network cards include C000h, D000h, and D800h.

baseline Gives you a snapshot of the network to establish what normal activity patterns look like. It involves capturing statistics that describe how the network is being used throughout the course of a normal working day.

BDC (Backup Domain Controller) For Windows NT, this is the server that keeps a record of the domain's database and security policy. It helps authenticate network logins.

BNC The BNC connector, which has a great deal of weird lore behind it, is simply the type of connector that thin Ethernet networks use to attach the media to the NIC. It's known as Bayonet Navy Connector, Bayonet Neill Concelman, Bayonet Nut Connection, and British Naval Connector.

boot What you do to your workstation when you turn it on or to the server when you load SERVER.EXE.

bootable Any media format (floppy disk, CD-ROM, hard drive, and so on) that can boot a workstation or server.

bridge An internetworking device that works at the data link layer (layer 2 of the OSI reference model) that works on the basis of MAC layer network addresses. Bridges can forward non-routable protocols, such as NetBEUI or DLC, from one side of the device to the other.

brouter Take the words bridge and router, and this is what you get. A device allows you to "bridge" unlike networks and "router" dynamic connections between networks.

buffer space NICs contain their own RAM to provide working space for information coming on and off the network. It's called buffer space because it provides room for incoming and outgoing data to be stored.

bus A network topology type in which all computers are attached to a single, shared cable. A bus topology is most commonly used for Ethernet networks or other contention-based networking schemes.

bus mastering "When you can snatch the bus from my hand..." This design allows any added boards to operate independently of the central processor.

cache The area in which Windows NT stores data so it can get to it quickly later.

CAD No, it's not your Uncle Sal who never gets invited home for the holidays.... This acronym refers to either Computer Aided Dispatch or Computer Aided Design.

client A desktop machine is called a client on the network, or simply a client. Calling it a desktop focuses on its role in supporting an individual, who typically is working at a desk; calling it a client focuses on its connectedness to the network. Whatever you call it, it's still the same thing: the machine you sit in front of when you're working.

coaxial cable A two-element cable, with a center conductor wrapped by an insulator, which is wrapped by an outer conductor that is typically a wire braid covered by still more insulation. Coaxial cable (or coax, as it prefers to be known) is used for cable TV. Even if you don't think that you know what it is, you probably can relate to cable TV.

collision detect The process of detecting collisions. Collisions are simultaneous transmissions from different workstations. These are bad! We don't want them. No sir, no collisions 'round here, thank you very much!

communications Communications establish the rules for the way computers talk to each other or what things mean.

compression A mathematical technique for analyzing computer files to squeeze them down to a smaller size. A feature of most backup systems, compression is also available in Windows NT 3.51 and higher, which can compress files stored on the file server. According to Microsoft, this kind of file compression can result in an increase in storage capacity that is better than 2-to-1.

concentrator Applies directly to Ethernet, where it concentrates a number of workstations so they share the same path to the file server. A concentrator is typically composed of 8 or 12 ports into which workstations attach along their own media segments.

CONFIG.SYS See your DOS manual for an explanation. (This is a Windows NT book).

connectionless protocol A networking protocol like IPX, IP, or UDP, that offers only "best-effort" delivery services and includes no session handling capabilities nor guarantees of data delivery.

connections Include the physical pieces of gear needed to hook a computer to the network and the wires or other materials -- known as the networking medium -- used to carry messages from one computer to another or among multiple computers.

conventional memory The memory below 640K. Normally, your LAN drivers are loaded in this space if you have room.

CPU (Central Processing Unit) The main processor of a computer.

CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) The technique of logging onto a network that checks for collisions as the connection is being made and will avoid any collisions encountered by delaying the transmission.

DAT (Digital Audio Tape) A special kind of 4mm-wide recording tape used in some computer backup systems. Note: Even though they're the same format and size, computer backup tape is usually quite different from audio recording tape. This means that you should not use an audiotape to back up your network.

DLC (Data Link Control) The packages of information that control the transmission of data through numerous checks and maintenance functions.

dedicated server A PC whose primary job is to serve other users across the network, not sitting at its own keyboard. (In other words, it's dedicated to providing services, not to serving a particular user).

defragmentation The task of removing all fragmentation from a drive. Fragmentation is that nasty breaking up of files all over your hard drive. A third here, a sixth there -- you get the idea; defragmentation takes all the files and reconstructs them into a solid line, beginning to end, on your hard drive. The makes read times much faster and frees up space.

desktop The workspace of your computer.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) The process that allows a server to assign an IP address dynamically.

DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches Those teensy-weensy switches that connect from the outside of a device to a circuit board on the inside.

DMA (Direct Memory Access) This method of moving data directly from external devices to RAM greatly speeds up processing times.

disk duplexing Not only mirrors the drives but also provides the capability to use totally backed up and redundant disk controllers. Disk controllers are the adapter cards that make the drive go 'round. With disk duplexing, you have redundancy of most of the critical moving parts inside your server. We always use disk duplexing and strongly suggest that you do, too, whenever your budget permits. Duplexing beats having spare controllers and hard drives in stock because it doesn't require you to bring the server down immediately to make repairs. You have the luxury of postponing repairs until a more convenient time for both you and your users.

disk mirroring A process in which you can install duplicate hard drives, one active and one backup, which Windows NT then writes to simultaneously. If a crash or other problem occurs on the active drive, Windows NT automatically begins to use the backup drive and notifies you of the switch.

disk subsystem A fancy name for some extra storage on your file server.

distributed-star A topology that looks like a cross between a bus and a star. It's used by ARCNET.

DMA (Direct Memory Addressing) DMA works by matching up two areas of memory, one on the computer and the other on the NIC. Writing to the memory area on the computer automatically causes that data to get copied to the NIC, and vice versa. To set a DMA address means to find an unoccupied DMA memory block to assign to your NIC.

DNS (Domain Name Server) These computers convert IP addresses into domain names.

domain The area of interactivity. Big or small, near or far, whatever you can "see" on your network is your domain.

DOS (Disk Operating System) Not Windows NT, but the "other" operating system running underneath.

driver The guy behind the wheel of a LAN adapter (and most other computer hardware devices).

EISA (Extended ISA) A type of PC bus with a 32-bit data path.

e-mail gateway Usually, a computer on the network. Its job is to send and receive e-mail and, sometimes, faxes. To do this, it places scheduled calls into various servers and downloads the packages for all the users on that network.

encryption Did you ever play "spy" as a kid? Well, when you wrote a message in code, you were encrypting the message. The same holds true when a computer does the task for you. Helpful when you want to send information (such as credit card numbers and passwords) that you don't want to fall into enemy hands.

ERD (Emergency Repair Disk) A bootable disk that has diagnostic and repair utilities.

Ethernet The most popular network-access method. Ethernet uses Collision Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) circuitry to manage media access.

Everyone group When this designation is given to an area of the server, any and all users can access it.

Fast Ethernet 100MB per second Ethernet. Pretty spiffy, huh? Well, you'll have to wait; it's still in the planning stages.

FAT (File Allocation Table) A list of all the pieces of disk storage space that make up a file, for each and every file in a DOS accessible Windows NT Server volume.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) A 100-Mbps network-access method. It's very fast but very expensive, so you probably won't see it on your desktop any time soon.

fiber-optic cable This type of cable is built around conductive elements that move light, not electricity. For most fiber-optic cables, the conductive element is most likely a form of special glass fiber rather than copper or some other conductive metal. Even though plastic-based fiber-optic cable is available, it's not as light-conductive as glass and can't cover the long distances that glass can. The beauty of fiber-optic cable is that it's immune to electronic and magnetic interference and has tons more bandwidth than do most electrical cable types.

fibre channel A multispeed networking media that includes, but is not limited to, coaxial and fiber-optic cabling.

file server The device on a network that services requests from the workstations.

file system The way in which the network operating system handles and stores files.

firewall Software and hardware that helps prevent intrusion of the network from the outside.

firmware Software that is stored in a near-permanent state, such as EPROMs.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a file-transfer program named FTP, which can copy files between any two TCP/IP-equipped computers.

gateway An electronic or software device that connects two or more dissimilar computer systems. Gateways are becoming more and more common as vendors figure out how to make this computer talk to that computer.

Gigabit Ethernet A proposed Ethernet standard that would allow for transmission speeds of up to 1 Gbps. That's 1,073,741,824 bits a second!

global group A group defined within the context of a Windows NT domain that applies to the entire domain (that is, it applies "globally"). Global groups are required to exploit interdomain trust relationships.

GUI (Graphical User Interface) Any computer interface that utilizes graphics instead of a command lines.

HCL (Hardware Compatibility List) Basically, this is the list of all the hardware that an OS's built-in drivers can use.

hexadecimal A system of ten numbers and six letters used to convert strings of zeros and ones into binary numbers.

Hotfixes From Novell's NetWare, Hotfixes are a safety feature that keeps free space on a hard disk to which data from faulty blocks can be stored and then moved to a good part of the drive.

I/O address Every card in a system has its own I/O address, where certain addresses are reserved for some interfaces, especially video cards. NICs aren't quite that picky and typically can get an I/O port address assigned from a reserved range of addresses. An I/O port gets set up to let the computer read from or write to memory that belongs to an interface. When an interrupt gets signaled, it tells the computer to read from the I/O port address, indicating incoming data. When the computer wants to send data, it signals the NIC to get ready to receive, and it writes to that address.

intruder Anyone trying to break in to the LAN, no matter what his intentions. An intruder may be your boss who's trying to break into your directories to read your latest invective against him or her, or someone from outside who's trying to steal company secrets.

IP Called the Internet Protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP sets up the mechanism for transferring data across the network.

IPX NetWare's native transport protocol, also available as an option in the Windows NT environment.

IRQ (Interrupt ReQuests) An alert to the bus and CPU that a device needs attention.

ISA A bus of the 16-bit kind used in AT-class computers.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) A media that allows fast transmission speeds over a dual-line modem.

ISO/OSI The International Standards Organization's Open Systems Interconnect family of networking protocols. Although it was highly touted as the successor to TCP/IP and the next big "networking thing," OSI has yet to live up to its promise. Because most governments require systems to be OSI-compliant, a good bit of it is still out there in industry, government, business, and academia. Like TCP/IP, ISO/OSI is available for a broad range of systems, from PCs to supercomputers.

ISP (Internet Service Provider) The person or company you shell out money to for your internet service. They hook you up, and they make sure you get connected and stay connected. Yep, they're your buddies.

jukeboxes Instead of records or CDs, your computer's jukebox holds storage devices.

LAN (Local Area Network) See also network.

LAN driver Like gas is to a car, the LAN driver supplies the get-up-and-go (and the brains) for the NIC.

LKGC (Last Known Good Configuration) The settings of the drivers and hardware that were saved when the machine was working properly. You did save them, didn't you?

local group A collection of user and global group names that apply to some resource on a particular Windows NT machine. Local groups provide the mechanism to associate users and global groups with file, print, and other resources.

LocalTalk networks Networks run via AppleTalk over non-Ethernet cabling.

log out What you do when you check out from the LAN.

loopback A troubleshooting method that returns a signal to its source. If the signal is the same, it is a good sign.

loopback test Often a part of a vendor's board diagnostics. Running a loopback test tells an NIC to talk to itself to see whether it's working. From an electronic standpoint, this test exercises circuitry on the card all the way up to the actual network medium interface to the login.

Macintosh OS The operating system utilized by Apple Computer desktop computers and their clones.

master-slave relationship I bet this is the first definition you read, isn't it? You can't have one without the other. There are those who dish it out and those who take it. Wait, this is a computer book isn't it? In this case, the master sets the time to which the slave syncs itself. A slave can be a node or a device.

MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) This internal 32-bit bus architecture was used on some IBM PS/2 computers but was never widely accepted. It lost out to the ISA architecture.

media filter Used with the token-ring access method to change the type of media used from Type 1 (shielded twisted-pair) to Type 3 (unshielded twisted-pair) or vice versa.

motherboard What many refer to as the logic board; it's a computer's primary board.

NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) Developed by Microsoft and 3Com, this driver specification allows independence of network drivers and multiplexing of different protocol stacks.

NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) A second-generation protocol designed especially to support NetBIOS-based communications. You can call NetBIOS and NetBEUI a matched set -- that's what Microsoft and IBM used to offer as their primary protocol option for their networking products.

NetBIOS (Networked Basic Input-Output System) Designed by IBM as a networked extension to PC BIOS, NetBIOS is a higher-level protocol that runs on top of lots of lower-level protocols, including IPX and TCP/IP as well as others. Even though NetBIOS is pretty old, it's very easy to program with and consequently is used in many different networked applications on a broad range of computers and operating systems.

netmask (Also known as a subnetwork mask or subnet mask) A special bit pattern that "takes over" part of the host ID portion of an IP address, that permits a larger network to be subdivided into two or more subnetworks, each with its own unique network address.

network A collection of at least two computers linked together so they can communicate with each other.

network map A diagram of the cables, connections, and devices on a network that's usually combined with a more detailed database that provides exact dimensions and configuration details for the items that appear on the diagram.

Network Monitor This is the built-in Windows NT utility that watches over your network while you sleep, or when you indulge in a three-martini lunch.

network operating system The network's main control program is called its operating system because it's the program that lets the network operate.

NFS (Network File System) volumes Allows computers on networks to use other computer's files as if the files were their own.

NIC (Network Interface Card) You guessed it -- this card connects a computer to the network. You're one smart cookie!

NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) Gives the network the ability to read and write to network news services, such as Usenet.

node Any device on the network. It can be a workstation, a printer, or the file server.

NTFS The Windows NT File System that gives the OS the ability to read very large storage formats , POSIX subsystem features, and file recovery.

ODI (Open Datalink Interface) A Novell specification; pronounced "oh-dee-eye." Originally, the specification's moniker was ODLI, but it sounded strange ("odd-ly") when you said it that way. ODI is a specification for writing LAN drivers that saves vendors from work and gives users a certain comfort level that their ODI drivers will work in a predictable way.

operating system The software that runs a computer. An OS turns a box of parts into a lean, mean, computing machine.

OS/2 (Operating System/2) Developed by Microsoft and IBM, this multitasking OS can run on most Pentium-based computers.

passive hub The couch potato of network devices. Used in ARCNET as a device that joins segments, but it does not amplify the signals; it simply passes them along.

password The LAN's equivalent to "open sesame." Windows NT Server lets users have passwords that range in length from 1 to 64 alphanumeric characters. Passwords aren't mandatory, but you use them to log on to most networks. We don't recommend the use of overly long passwords (more than 12 to 15 characters is too difficult to remember).

patch panels A special hardware device that consists of numerous incoming and outgoing cable connections that can be arbitrarily linked, or patched, together. Patch panels are important elements in most of the wiring centers associated with various twisted-pair telephone and network wiring applications.

PDC (primary domain controller) In a Windows NT network, this is the machine that secures all logins and maintains the file system for the domain.

peer to peer A built-in method of networking that Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95, and Windows NT Workstation can use to share local resources across the network. A server-based network requires all shared resources to reside on a centralized server. A peer-to-peer network gives everyone on the network the opportunity to share his or her local stuff with others on the network.

Performance Monitor The utility that watches all the processes of the computer and keeps detailed reports of the activity for any who care to see them.

permission A named set of access rights to Windows NT objects that specify the access and operations that users or groups can apply to such objects. Windows NT tracks object permissions in associated Access Control Lists, or ACLs.

PING (Packet InterNet Grouper) We think we first heard of this on one of the Jacques Cousteau films in the '80s. This is what signals another network or computer to see if it is active and accessible.

print queue Windows NT uses print queues to store pending print jobs, in the form of print-image files, while they wait their turn to be printed. The queue is the mechanism that handles requests for printing from users and that supplies the print-image files to the printer in the proper order. See also queue.

print server The device or software that controls network printing and services printing requests.

properties John has blue eyes. John works in sales. John is the sales manager. The object "John" has properties in the Windows NT naming system or Registry database (depending, of course, on what kind of object it is).

protocol In diplomacy, protocol refers to the rules for behavior that let representatives from sovereign governments communicate with each other in a way calculated to keep things peaceful, or at least under control. For that reason, diplomats refer to heated screaming matches as "frank and earnest discussions" or to insoluble disagreements as "exploratory dialogue."

Double-talk aside, the word protocol captures the flavor of what these sets of rules have to do for networks. Most networking protocols consist of a named collection of specific message formats and rules for interaction rather than a single set of formats and rules. For this reason, protocols are also called protocol suites, not because they like to lounge around on matched collections of furniture, but because they travel in packs.

punchdown block A cable-management device associated with twisted-pair wiring, punchdown blocks include numerous special-purpose connectors upon which wiring pairs are "punched down" to establish permanent connections. Punchdown blocks usually are used in tandem with patch panels.

QIC (Quarter-Inch Cartridge) A common format for backup tapes.

queue The British word for line. When you share a printer, Windows NT creates a queue to store print jobs waiting for that printer. Each printer has its own print queue. As the server sends print jobs to the printer, NT lines them up in a manner similar to a queue forming outside a British privy. Jobs print in the order in which the queue receives them. This system means that the printer doesn't have to be available at the time you ask to print something. The print queues accept any and all print requests as they occur and then line up all print jobs for printing as the printer becomes available.

RAS (Remote Access Service) Usually refers to a connection to a terminal or network made via a phone line.

redirector or requester A piece of software that looks at each request for service from a user. If the request can be satisfied locally, it passes that request on to the local PC's operating system for it to be handled. If it cannot be handled locally, the request is assumed to be directed to the network, and the redirector then passes the request on to a service provider (also known as a server) on the network. Using a redirector is a pretty common way to handle network access from a desktop.

repeater An internetworking device that operates at the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI reference model, that "repeats" all signals received on one port on all other outgoing ports.

RFC (Request for Comment) Defines certain actions of Internet operation specific to its individual aspects.

right In Windows NT, the term right can be used in two ways: User rights refer to special account-related settings (such as "log on locally to a computer" in the Policies --> User Rights menu of the User Manager for Domains utility) that define how users are permitted to interact with the network and its resources. When used in the context of permissions, rights refer to those operations or services that users or groups are allowed to perform against a specific Windows NT object.

ring Token ring uses the ring or star-wired ring topology. Real rings seldom get built because they're too sensitive to failure, but the idea of a ring often gets implemented over a bus or a star, or in the form of a redundant ring with multiple cables and pathways to improve the odds that it will keep running. It sounds strange, but mapping a ring onto a star or a bus is the way some networking technologies work.

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) This architecture is based on the speed of individual instructions over an instruction set as in the CISC architecture. (CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer.)

router Better than bridges, routers can connect dissimilar types of networks.

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) SCSI, pronounced "scuzzy," isn't an alternative form of grunge. It's an interface in the computer to which you can attach almost anything, but mostly you attach disk drives.

server The computer that processes requests to clients. Sometimes, when it gets to be too much, you must purge the information from the server.

shell Sometimes you use this type of special program so that you can get the network going and run the programs you're really interested in using. The shell handles all service requests and, rather than pass along things that aren't local to the network the way a redirector does, it separates what's networked from what's not and hands things off accordingly. It, too, is a pretty common way to handle network access from a desktop.

shielded twisted-pair (STP) A type of twisted-pair cable used in Ethernet networks that has a cladding around the conductive copper core.

SID (Security IDentification number) This five-digit number designates your "home" to cellular devices.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) The protocol that governs the sending and receiving of e-mail.

SNA (Systems Network Architecture) IBM's basic protocol suite. Where there's a mainframe or an AS/400, you also typically find SNA. Because SNA was one of the pioneering protocols, companies that invested heavily in mainframe technology in the 1960s and 1970s also invested in building large-scale SNA networks.

star A type of networking topology; consists of separate wires that run from a central point (called a hub 'cause it's in the middle) to devices (usually, computers) on the other end of each wire.

sysop An abbreviation for system operator, who is typically the person responsible for coordinating traffic and for answering questions on an online bulletin board or electronic information system. The folks who field NetWare questions on CompuServe's Novell-related forums -- known collectively as NetWire -- are the people we mean when we talk about sysops in this book.

system administrator The big kahuna on any Windows NT Server (and network). This person wins and controls all the marbles, but is also responsible for keeping the servers and the network up and running.

T-connector This device lets you connect a BNC connector to the media for a workstation in the middle of an Ethernet bus.

TCP/IP The real name of this protocol suite is the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. Because the Internet is composed of more than 30,000 sites worldwide and TCP/IP claims more than 25 million users, it's another major player in the protocol world. TCP/IP has deep roots in the UNIX community and also is widely used to link computers of different kinds.

Telnet The name of a standard TCP/IP network service, which lets one computer pretend that it's a terminal attached to another computer over the network. Telnet is the way TCP/IP users typically work on other computers over the network when they're not working directly on their own machines.

Thick Ethernet See 10Base5.

Thin Ethernet See 10Base2.

throughput A measure of the speed of a network-access method, typically stated in bps (bits per second).

token ring Another one of the access methods, token ring is a networking technology that tells a workstation when it can send data over the network, by using a circulating token to grant permission. Token ring communicates at either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.

token Similar to a marker on a poker table, it indicates who has the deal or which workstation can send data on a token ring, ARCNET, or FDDI network.

toolbar All those nifty buttons lined up that are shortcuts to often-used tasks. Where would you be without them?

topology The lay of the LAN, or how workstations are laid out and connected with the file server by way of the media. See also bus, star, and ring, if you want the details.

transceiver Using a transceiver is similar to pouring water from a pitcher into a soda bottle. It enables you to connect a network adapter for one type of media to another type of media. Commonly, you use a transceiver in Ethernet to translate from thin Ethernet to unshielded twisted-pair. In token ring, a media filter replaces the transceiver.

twisted-pair TP comes in two flavors: shielded and unshielded. It sometimes is abbreviated as STP for shielded twisted-pair and UTP for unshielded twisted-pair. The difference between the two, of course, is that one has a foil or wire braid wrap around the individual wires that are twisted around each other in pairs, and the other does not.

UNIX Ken Thompson designed this operating system in 1969. It is as powerful as it is complex. UNIX runs on many different platforms and, because of this fact, makes networking and porting files/applications between machines more feasible at times.

UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Same as twisted-pair except that it has no shielding element between the conducting stands and the outer insulator; this allows radiation to escape that might otherwise interfere with the transmission.

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) Contains a rechargeable battery that provides your server with a backup power source in case its A/C power fails. The UPS senses that A/C power has gone away, and it kicks in automatically to supply power to your server on a few milliseconds' notice.

user account Keeps you in control or lets you get in trouble on your LAN, depending on whether the supervisor has it in for you.

user You guessed it -- this is you. It could be someone else too, but you get the idea.

username This is you, or you, or you. It's your name on the system.

Virtual Memory That bit of hard drive space used by the CPU as if it were RAM. Go ahead and use it; we won't tell.

volume Windows NT divides the file server disks into areas called volumes, which are logical, or nonphysical, divisions of hard disk space.

wall plates A special wall-mounted junction box that looks like a switch plate or an outlet, a wall plate includes connectors for access to in-wall network cabling.

WAN (wide area network) A network that covers a large slice of geography. Have we told you that we have ocean-front property to sell?

Windows NT Isn't this the reason you bought this book? This operating system is more flexible (and larger) than other versions of Windows.

Windows NT Server A specialized version of Windows NT, created to run a server and all its tasks for a network.

workarounds Those neat bits of troubleshooting trickery that don't actually solve a problem entirely, but let you get on with your day.

workstation Where you sit whether you're just a lowly user or the head honcho. Also, a term to denote a non-server computer.

WORM (Write Once, Read Many) Describes a type of optical-storage technology.

XDSL drivers Generic drivers for Digital Subscriber Line. (Yes, generic. What do you think the X is for?) This transmission medium gives you very high bandwith and speed. We love lots of bandwith, don't you?

XNS NetWare's IPX protocols are derived from a similar protocol set developed at Xerox, called the Xerox Networking System and abbreviated as XNS. There are lots of XNS-derived protocols out there in the networking world, but IPX/SPX is the most prevalent.