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Wireless Communications Resource Management

Wireless Communications Resource Management

Byeong Gi Lee, Daeyoung Park, Hanbyul Seo

ISBN: 978-0-470-82358-3

Jan 2010, Wiley-IEEE Press

320 pages

Description

Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources.

Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  • Presents the latest resource allocation techniques for new and next generation air interface technologies
  • Arms readers with the necessary fundamentals and mathematical tools
  • Illustrates theoretical concepts in a concrete manner
  • Gives detailed coverage on scheduling, power management, and MIMO techniques
  • Written by an author team working in both academia and industry

Wireless Communications Resource Managementis geared for engineers in the wireless industry and graduate students specializing in wireless communications. Professionals in wireless service and device manufacturing industries will find the book to be a clear, up-to-date overview of the topic. Readers will benefit from a basic, undergraduate-level understanding of networks and communications.

Course instructors can access lecture materials at the companion website:(www.wiley.com/go/bglee)

Preface xi

About the Authors xv

Abbreviations xvii

PART I—CONCEPTS AND BACKGROUND

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Evolution of Wireless Communications 3

1.2 Wireless Resource Management 5

1.2.1 Bandwidth Management 5

1.2.2 Transmission Power Management 6

1.2.3 Antenna Management 6

1.2.4 Inter-cell Resource Management 6

1.3 Organization of the Book 7

2 Characteristics of Wireless Channels 9

2.1 Channel Gain 9

2.2 Large-scale Fading 11

2.2.1 Path Loss 12

2.2.2 Shadowing 16

2.3 Small-scale Fading 17

2.3.1 Fading in the Time Domain 20

2.3.2 Fading in the Frequency Domain 24

2.4 Technologies against Channel Fading 28

2.4.1 Diversity 29

2.4.2 Hybrid ARQ 32

2.4.3 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 36

3 Basic Concepts for Resource Management 41

3.1 Definition of Resource Management 42

3.1.1 Wireless Resources 42

3.1.2 Problem Formulation 47

3.2 Multiple-access Methods 51

3.2.1 Frequency-division Multiple Access 52

3.2.2 Time-division Multiple Access 53

3.2.3 Code-division Multiple Access 55

3.2.4 Orthogonal Frequency-division Multiple Access 59

3.3 Quality of Services 63

3.3.1 QoS Classification 65

3.3.2 Prioritization and Fairness 66

3.4 Resource Management in Protocol Layers 67

3.4.1 Classical Protocol Layering 68

3.4.2 Cross-layer Design in Wireless Resource Management 69

4 Mathematical Tools for Resource Management 73

4.1 Convex Optimization 74

4.1.1 Basic Concepts 74

4.1.2 Constrained Optimization 76

4.1.3 Lagrange Dual Function 77

4.1.4 Karush–Kuhn–Tucker Optimality Condition 82

4.1.5 Application of Convex Optimization 83

4.2 Dynamic Programming 86

4.2.1 Sequential Optimization 86

4.2.2 Markov Decision Process 93

4.3 Analogy of Economics and Wireless Resource Management 98

4.3.1 Economics Model 98

4.3.2 Example of Wireless Resource Allocation 102

PART II—WIRELESS RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

5 Bandwidth Management 109

5.1 Differences between Wired and Wireless Communications 110

5.1.1 Statistical Multiplexing in a Wired Network 110

5.1.2 Multiuser Diversity in a Wireless Network 110

5.2 Schedulers based on Generalized Processor Sharing 113

5.2.1 Generalized Processor Sharing 113

5.2.2 Modifications of GPS for Wireless Channels 118

5.3 Schedulers for Throughput Maximization 122

5.3.1 Maximal-rate Scheduling 123

5.3.2 Proportional Fairness Scheduling 124

5.3.3 Temporal Fairness Scheduling 127

5.3.4 Utilitarian Fairness Scheduling 129

5.3.5 Scheduling based on Cumulative Distribution Function 132

5.3.6 Comparison of Scheduling Algorithms 135

5.4 Delay Performance of Wireless Schedulers 140

5.4.1 Throughput Optimality 140

5.4.2 Modified Largest-Weight-Delay-First (LWDF) Scheduling 143

5.4.3 Exponential Rule Scheduling 148

5.5 QoS in Wireless Scheduling and Admission Control 149

5.5.1 Effective Bandwidth and Effective Capacity 151

5.5.2 QoS Provision 154

6 Transmission Power Management 161

6.1 Transmission Power Management for Interference Regulation 162

6.1.1 Power Control with Strict SINR Requirement 165

6.1.2 Utility-based Power Control 173

6.1.3 Power Control along with Rate Control 184

6.1.4 Power Control for Hybrid ARQ 195

6.2 Transmission Power Management for Multiple Parallel Subchannels 198

6.2.1 Single-user Case 199

6.2.2 Multiuser Case I: Throughput Maximization 202

6.2.3 Multiuser Case II: Utility Maximization 207

6.2.4 Multiuser Case III: With Time Diversity 211

6.3 Transmission Power Adaptation to Time-varying Environments 215

6.3.1 Capacity of Time-varying Channels 216

6.3.2 Transmission Time and Energy Efficiency 224

6.3.3 Power Adaptation Based on Buffer and Channel States 237

7 Antenna Management 245

7.1 Capacity of MIMO Channels 245

7.1.1 Capacity of a Deterministic Channel 246

7.1.2 Ergodic Capacity 248

7.1.3 Outage Capacity 249

7.2 MIMO Transmission 251

7.2.1 Diversity Transmission 251

7.2.2 Spatial Multiplexing 257

7.2.3 Diversity/Multiplexing Tradeoff 262

7.3 Multiuser MIMO 266

7.3.1 Uplink Channel 267

7.3.2 Dirty-paper Coding 274

7.3.3 Downlink Channel 276

7.3.4 Downlink–Uplink Duality 281

7.3.5 Downlink Precoding Schemes 284

8 Inter-cell Resource Management 289

8.1 Inter-cell Interference Management 290

8.1.1 Fixed Channel Allocation 290

8.1.2 Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) 296

8.1.3 Channel Allocation based on SINR Measurement 302

8.1.4 Channel Allocation with Inter-cell Power Control 306

8.2 Handoff Management 313

8.2.1 Handoff Procedure and Performance 314

8.2.2 Resource Reservation via Guard Channel Policy 319

8.2.3 Handoff Request Queuing and Soft Handoff 328

8.2.4 Advanced Handoff Management Schemes 334

Index 343