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Wireless Networks

Wireless Networks

Georgios I. Papadimitriou, Andreas S. Pomportsis, P. Nicopolitidis, Mohammed S. Obaidat

ISBN: 978-0-470-85801-1

Mar 2003

422 pages

Description

Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of
wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communication path and the network is the totality of switches, transmission links and terminals used for the generation, handling and receiving of telecoms traffic.
Wireless networks are rapidly evolving, and are playing an increasing role in the lives of people throughout the world and ever-larger numbers of people are relying on the technology directly or indirectly.

The area of wireless communications is an extremely rich field for research, due to the difficulties posed by the wireless medium and the increasing demand for better and cheaper services. As the wireless market evolves, it is likely to increase in size and possibly integrate with other wireless technologies, in order to offer support for mobile computing applications, of perceived performance equal to those of wired communication networks.
Wireless Networks aims to provide an excellent introductory text covering the wireless technological alternatives offered today. It will include old analog cellular systems, current second generation (2G) systems architectures supporting voice and data transfer and also the upcoming world of third generation mobile networks. Moreover, the book features modern wireless technology topics, such as Wireless Local Loops (WLL), Wireless LANs, Wireless ATM and Personal Area Networks (such as Bluetooth).
* Provides an easy to use reference which presents a clear set of technologies per chapter
* Features modern wireless technology topics, such as Wireless Local Loops (WLL), Wireless LANs, Wireless ATM, Personal Area Networks (such as Bluetooth) and Ad-hoc wireless networks
* Progresses through the developments of first, second, third, fourth generation cellular systems and beyond
* Includes helpful simulation examples and examples of algorithms and systems
Essential reading for Senior undergraduate and graduate students studying computer science, telecommunications and engineering, engineers and researchers in the field of wireless communications and technical managers and consultants.

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Preface xv

1 Introduction to Wireless Networks 1

1.1 Evolution of Wireless Networks 2

1.1.1 Early Mobile Telephony 2

1.1.2 Analog Cellular Telephony 3

1.1.3 Digital Cellular Telephony 4

1.1.4 Cordless Phones 7

1.1.5 Wireless Data Systems

1.1.6 Fixed Wireless Links 11

1.1.7 Satellite Communication Systems 11

1.1.8 Third Generation Cellular Systems and Beyond 12

1.2 Challenges 12

1.2.1 Wireless Medium Unreliability 13

1.2.2 Spectrum Use 13

1.2.3 Power Management 13

1.2.4 Security 14

1.2.5 Location/Routing 14

1.2.6 Interfacing with Wired Networks 14

1.2.7 Health Concerns 14

1.3 Overview 15

1.3.1 Chapter 2: Wireless Communications Principles and Fundamentals 15

1.3.2 Chapter 3: First Generation (1G) Cellular Systems 16

1.3.3 Chapter 4: Second Generation (2G) Cellular Systems 16

1.3.4 Chapter 5: Third Generation (3G) Cellular Systems 17

1.3.5 Chapter 6: Future Trends: Fourth Generation (4G) Systems and Beyond 18

1.3.6 Chapter 7: Satellite Networks 19

1.3.7 Chapter 8: Fixed Wireless Access Systems 19

1.3.8 Chapter 9: Wireless Local Area Networks 20

1.3.9 Chapter 10: Wireless ATM and Ad Hoc Routing 21

1.3.10 Chapter 11: Personal Area Networks (PANs) 21

1.3.11 Chapter 12: Security Issues in Wireless Systems 22

1.3.12 Chapter 13: Simulation of Wireless Network Systems 22

1.3.13 Chapter 14: Economics of Wireless Networks 23

WWW Resources 23

References 23

2 Wireless Communications Principles and Fundamentals 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.1.1 Scope of the Chapter 26

2.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 26

2.2.1 Transmission Bands and their Characteristics 27

2.2.2 Spectrum Regulation 30

2.3 Wireless Propagation Characteristics and Modeling 32

2.3.1 The Physics of Propagation 32

2.3.2 Wireless Propagation Modeling 36

2.3.3 Bit Error Rate (BER) Modeling of Wireless Channels 41

2.4 Analog and Digital Data Transmission 41

2.4.1 Voice Coding 43

2.5 Modulation Techniques for Wireless Systems 46

2.5.1 Analog Modulation 47

2.5.2 Digital Modulation 49

2.6 Multiple Access for Wireless Systems 54

2.6.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 55

2.6.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 56

2.6.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 58

2.6.4 ALOHA-Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) 59

2.6.5 Polling Protocols 61

2.7 Performance Increasing Techniques for Wireless Networks 67

2.7.1 Diversity Techniques 67

2.7.2 Coding 71

2.7.3 Equalization 74

2.7.4 Power Control 75

2.7.5 Multisubcarrier Modulation 76

2.8 The Cellular Concept 77

2.8.1 Mobility Issues: Location and Handoff 80

2.9 The Ad Hoc and Semi Ad Hoc Concepts 81

2.9.1 Network Topology Determination 82

2.9.2 Connectivity Maintenance 83

2.9.3 Packet Routing 84

2.9.4 The Semi Ad Hoc Concept 84

2.10 Wireless Services: Circuit and Data (Packet) Mode 85

2.10.1 Circuit Switching 85

2.10.2 Packet Switching 86

2.11 Data Delivery Approaches 87

2.11.1 Pull and Hybrid Systems 88

2.11.2 Push Systems 88

2.11.3 The Adaptive Push System 89

2.12 Overview of Basic Techniques and Interactions Between the Different Network Layers 90

2.13 Summary 92

WWW Resources 92

References 93

Further Reading 94

3 First Generation (1G) Cellular Systems 95

3.1 Introduction 95

3.1.1 Analog Cellular Systems 96

3.1.2 Scope of the Chapter 97

3.2 Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) 97

3.2.1 AMPS Frequency Allocations 97

3.2.2 AMPS Channels 98

3.2.3 Network Operations 99

3.3 Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 102

3.3.1 NMT Architecture 102

3.3.2 NMT Frequency Allocations 103

3.3.3 NMT Channels 103

3.3.4 Network Operations: Mobility Management 104

3.3.5 Network Operations 106

3.3.6 NMT Security 107

3.4 Summary 109

WWW Resources 109

References 109

4 Second Generation (2G) Cellular Systems 111

4.1 Introduction 111

4.1.1 Scope of the Chapter 113

4.2 D-AMPS 113

4.2.1 Speech Coding 114

4.2.2 Radio Transmission Characteristics 114

4.2.3 Channels 115

4.2.4 IS-136 116

4.3 cdmaOne (IS-95) 117

4.3.1 cdmaOne Protocol Architecture 117

4.3.2 Network Architecture-Radio Transmission 118

4.3.3 Channels 118

4.3.4 Network Operations 120

4.4 GSM 121

4.4.1 Network Architecture 122

4.4.2 Speech Coding 125

4.4.3 Radio Transmission Characteristics 125

4.4.4 Channels 129

4.4.5 Network Operations 129

4.4.6 GSM Authentication and Security 132

4.5 IS-41 133

4.5.1 Network Architecture 133

4.5.2 Inter-system Handoff 134

4.5.3 Automatic Roaming 135

4.6 Data Operations 136

4.6.1 CDPD 136

4.6.2 HCSD 138

4.6.3 GPRS 138

4.6.4 D-AMPS1 139

4.6.5 cdmaTwo (IS-95b) 140

4.6.6 TCP/IP on Wireless-Mobile IP 140

4.6.7 WAP 142

4.7 Cordless Telephony (CT) 143

4.7.1 Analog CT 143

4.7.2 Digital CT 144

4.7.3 Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Standard (DECT) 144

4.7.4 The Personal Handyphone System (PHS) 147

4.8 Summary 147

WWW Resources 148

References 148

5 Third Generation (3G) Cellular Systems 151

5.1 Introduction 151

5.1.1 3G Concerns 153

5.1.2 Scope of the Chapter 154

5.2 3G Spectrum Allocation 154

5.2.1 Spectrum Requirements 154

5.2.2 Enabling Technologies 157

5.3 Third Generation Service Classes and Applications 158

5.3.1 Third Generation Service Classes 159

5.3.2 Third Generation Applications 160

5.4 Third Generation Standards 161

5.4.1 Standardization Activities: IMT-2000 161

5.4.2 Radio Access Standards 162

5.4.3 Fixed Network Evolution 183

5.5 Summary 185

WWW Resources 186

References 186

6 Future Trends: Fourth Generation (4G) Systems and Beyond 189

6.1 Introduction 189

6.1.2 Scope of the Chapter 190

6.2 Design Goals for 4G and Beyond and Related Research Issues 190

6.2.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 192

6.3 4G Services and Applications 195

6.4 Challenges: Predicting the Future of Wireless Systems 196

6.4.1 Scenarios: Visions of the Future

6.4.2 Trends for Next-generation Wireless Networks 197

6.4.3 Scenario 1: Anything Goes 198

6.4.4 Scenario 2: Big Brother 199

6.4.5 Scenario 3: Pocket Computing 200

6.5 Summary 200

WWW Resources 201

References 201

7 Satellite Networks 203

7.1 Introduction 203

7.1.1 Historical Overview 203

7.1.2 Satellite Communications Characteristics 204

7.1.3 Spectrum Issues 205

7.1.4 Applications of Satellite Communications 206

7.1.5 Scope of the Chapter 207

7.2 Satellite Systems 207

7.2.1 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) 208

7.2.2 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) 209

7.2.3 Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) 210

7.2.4 Elliptical Orbits 212

7.3 VSAT Systems 213

7.4 Examples of Satellite-based Mobile Telephony Systems 215

7.4.1 Iridium 215

7.4.2 Globalstar 220

7.5 Satellite-based Internet Access 222

7.5.1 Architectures 222

7.5.2 Routing Issues 224

7.5.3 TCP Enhancements 225

7.6 Summary 226

WWW Resources 227

References 228

Further Reading 228

"…covers a broad spectrum of both traditional and contemporary wireless technologies…well-written...well organized...should be a useful reference for any wireless practitioner or researcher." (IEEE Distributed Systems Online, May 2004)
  • Features modern wireless technology topics, such as Wireless Local Loops (WLL), Wireless LANs, Wireless ATM, Personal Area Networks (such as Bluetooth) and Ad-hoc wireless networks
  • Progresses through the developments of first, second, third, fourth generation cellular systems and beyond
  • Includes helpful simulation examples and examples of algorithms and systems