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Wood Deterioration, Protection and Maintenance

Wood Deterioration, Protection and Maintenance

Ladislav Reinprecht

ISBN: 978-1-119-10653-1

Oct 2016

376 pages

In Stock

$115.00

Description

Wood Deterioration, Protection and Maintenance provides an up to date discussion of the natural durability of wood, wood degradation processes, and methods of structural and chemical protection of wood. Modern active substances in wood preservatives and the relationships between preservative properties, the anatomical structure and moisture content of wood and protective processes involving pressure and/or diffusion driving forces are fully illustrated.

Preface ix

About the Author xi

1 Wood Durability and Lifetime of Wooden Products 1

1.1 Basic information about wood structure and its properties 1

1.1.1 Wood structure 3

1.1.2 Wood properties 10

1.2 Types and principles of wood degradation 12

1.3 Natural durability of wood 14

1.4 Methods of wood protection for improvement its durability 17

1.5 Service life prediction of wooden products 18

1.5.1 Lifetime of wooden products 20

1.5.2 Service life prediction of wooden products by factor method 21

1.5.3 Life cycle assessment of wooden products 22

References 25

Standards 27

2 Abiotic Degradation of Wood 28

2.1 Wood damaged by weather factors 28

2.2 Wood damaged thermally and by fire 34

2.2.1 Thermal wood decomposition 34

2.2.2 Wood burning: fire 36

2.3 Wood damaged by aggressive chemicals 45

2.3.1 Corrosion of wood by chemicals under aerobic conditions 45

2.3.2 Corrosion of wood by chemicals under anaerobic conditions: wood fossilization 49

2.4 Properties of abiotically damaged wood 50

2.4.1 Properties of weathered wood 50

2.4.2 Impact of increased temperature and fire on wood properties 52

2.4.3 Impact of water and other chemicals on wood properties 53

References 57

Standards 61

3 Biological Degradation of Wood 62

3.1 Wood damaged by bacteria 62

3.2 Wood damaged by fungi 65

3.2.1 Reproduction, classification and physiology of wood-damaging fungi 66

3.2.2 Wood-decaying fungi 76

3.2.3 Wood-staining fungi and moulds 88

3.3 Wood damaged by insects 91

3.3.1 Reproduction, classification and physiology of wood-damaging insects 91

3.3.2 Wood-damaging insects 97

3.4 Wood damaged by marine organisms 106

3.4.1 Shipworms 106

3.4.2 Limnoria 107

3.5 Mechanisms of wood biodegradation 108

3.5.1 Biodegradation of cellulose 110

3.5.2 Biodegradation of hemicelluloses 113

3.5.3 Biodegradation of lignin 114

3.6 Properties of biologically damaged wood 117

3.6.1 Properties of rotten wood 117

3.6.2 Properties of wood having galleries 118

References 120

4 Structural Protection of Wood 126

4.1 Methodology of structural protection of wood 126

4.2 Selection of suitable wood materials 126

4.3 Design proposals for permanently low moisture of wood 129

4.3.1 Estimated moisture of wood 129

4.3.2 Shape optimizations for wood moisture reduction 131

4.3.3 Waterproofing and other isolations of wood and wooden composites from water sources 137

4.3.4 Structural design to prevent condensed water generation 140

4.3.5 Regulation of climatic conditions in interiors 141

4.4 Fire sections and other fire-safety measures 142

References 143

Standards 144

5 Chemical Protection of Wood 145

5.1 Methodology, ecology and regulation of chemical protection of wood 145

5.1.1 Methodology and legislation of chemical protection of wood 146

5.1.2 Toxicological and ecotoxicological standpoints of chemical protection of wood 149

5.1.3 Regulation of chemical protection of wood 151

5.2 Preservatives for wood protection 152

5.2.1 Bactericides 152

5.2.2 Fungicides: for decay, sap-stain and mould control 153

5.2.3 Insecticides 163

5.2.4 Fire retardants 167

5.2.5 Protective coatings against weather impacts 170

5.2.6 Evaluation of new preservatives 172

5.3 Technologies of chemical protection of wood 173

5.3.1 Improvement of permeability and impregnability of wood 174

5.3.2 Application properties of preservatives 176

5.3.3 Flow and diffusion transport of preservatives in wood 177

5.3.4 Fixation of preservatives in wood 182

5.3.5 Non-autoclave technologies of chemical protection of wood 182

5.3.6 Autoclave technologies of chemical protection of wood 186

5.3.7 Nanotechnologies and nano-compounds for chemical protection of wood 191

5.3.8 Quality control of chemically protected wood 193

5.4 Chemical protection of wooden composites 196

5.4.1 Wooden composites and their susceptibility to damage 196

5.4.2 Principles and technologies of chemical protection of wooden composites 199

References 206

Standards 215

Directives 217

6 Modifying Protection of Wood 218

6.1 Methodology, ecology and effectiveness of wood modification 218

6.1.1 Methods of wood modification: mechanical, physical, chemical and biological 219

6.1.2 Ecology of wood modification 221

6.1.3 Effectiveness of wood modification 221

6.2 Thermally modified wood 223

6.2.1 Principles, methods and technology of thermal wood modification 223

6.2.2 Durability and other properties of thermally modified wood 226

6.2.3 Applications of thermally modified wood 230

6.3 Chemically modified wood 231

6.3.1 Principles, methods and technology of chemical wood modification 231

6.3.2 Substances intentionally or randomly reacting with wood components 233

6.3.3 Durability and other properties of chemically modified wood 242

6.3.4 Applications of chemically modified wood 247

6.4 Biologically modified wood 247

6.4.1 Microorganisms suppressing the activity of wood-damaging fungi and insects 247

6.4.2 Gene engineering for increasing durability of wood and decreasing the activity of fungal enzymes 249

References 250

Standards 259

7 Maintenance of Wood and Restoration of Damaged Wood 260

7.1 Aims and enforcement of the maintenance and the restoration of damaged wood 260

7.2 Wood maintenance 260

7.2.1 Principles of wood maintenance in exteriors and interiors 260

7.2.2 Principles of the fight against the active stages of wood pests 261

7.3 Diagnosis of damaged wood 264

7.3.1 Sensory diagnostic methods 265

7.3.2 Instrumental diagnostic methods 266

7.3.3 Diagnosing the age of wood 278

7.4 Sterilization of biologically damaged wood 279

7.4.1 Physical sterilization of wood 280

7.4.2 Chemical sterilization of wood 286

7.5 Conservation of damaged wood 289

7.5.1 Natural and synthetic agents for wood conservation 289

7.5.2 Methods and technologies for the conservation of air-dried damaged wood 301

7.5.3 Methods and technologies for the conservation of waterlogged wood 306

7.6 Renovation of damaged wood 308

7.6.1 General requirements for the renovation of wooden objects 309

7.6.2 Techniques for strengthening of individual wooden elements 313

7.6.3 Techniques for strengthening of whole wooden structural units 324

References 327

Standards 337

Index 339