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Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5th Edition

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Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5th Edition

Frank J. Landy, Jeffrey M. Conte

ISBN: 978-1-119-17830-9 December 2015 624 Pages

Description

Work in the 21st Century, 5th Edition by Frank J. Landy and Jeffrey M. Conte, ties together themes such as diversity, mental and physical ability, personality, interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence, and evidence-based I-O psychology in a way that explores the rich and intriguing nature of the modern workplace. The 5th edition places an emphasis on the technological and multicultural dynamics of today's workplace. This edition retains the 14-chapter format and the 4-color design, which brings I-O psychology to life, especially with the use of newsworthy color photographs.

Related Resources

Preface xv

PART 1 FUNDAMENTALS

1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 1

Module 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology 2

The Importance of Work in People’s Lives 2

The Concept of “Good Work” 2

Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologists 4

What Is I-O Psychology? 4

I-O Psychology’s Contributions to Society 7

Evidence-Based I-O Psychology 8

SIOP as a Resource 9

How This Course Can Help You 10

The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker 12

Module 1.2 The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology 15

The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology 15

1876–1930 16

1930–1964 19

The Present: The Demographics of I-O Psychologists 22

Pathways to a Career in I-O Psychology: A Curious Mixture 23

What We Call Ourselves 23

The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Century 24

A Personal View of the Future: Preparing for a Career in I-O Psychology 25

Education and Training 25

Getting into a Graduate Program 26

Module 1.3 Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O Psychology 28

The Multicultural Nature of Life in the 21st Century 28

Cross-National Issues in the Workplace 30

Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You? 32

Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology? 33

Theories of Cultural Influence 34

Hofstede’s Theory 34

Other Theories of Cultural Influence 37

Module 1.4 The Organization of This Book 39

Themes 39

Parts 40

Resources 40

2 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology 47

Module 2.1 Science and Research 48

What Is Science? 48

The Role of Science in Society 49

Why Do I-O Psychologists Engage in Research? 50

Research Design 51

Methods of Data Collection 53

Qualitative and Quantitative Research 53

The Importance of Context in Interpreting Research 54

Generalizability and Control in Research 54

Generalizability 54

Control 56

Ethical Behavior in I-O Psychology 57

Module 2.2 Data Analysis 59

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 59

Descriptive Statistics 59

Inferential Statistics 60

Statistical Significance 61

The Concept of Statistical Power 62

Correlation and Regression 62

The Concept of Correlation 63

The Correlation Coefficient 63

Multiple Correlation 65

Correlation and Causation 65

Big Data 66

Meta-Analysis 67

Micro-, Macro-, and Meso-Research 69

Module 2.3 Interpretation 71

Reliability 71

Test–Retest Reliability 72

Equivalent Forms Reliability 72

Internal Consistency 73

Inter-Rater Reliability 73

Validity 74

Criterion-Related Validity 75

Content-Related Validity 77

Construct-Related Validity 78

PART 2 INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

3 Individual Differences and Assessment 81

Module 3.1 An Introduction to Individual Differences 82

Some Background 82

Differential Psychology, Psychometrics, and I-O Psychology 83

Identifying Individual Differences 84

Varieties of Individual Differences 85

Module 3.2 Human Attributes 87

Abilities 87

Cognitive Abilities 87

Intelligence as “g” 87

Is “g” Important at Work? 88

Is “g” as Important in Other Countries as It Is in the United States? 89

Specific Cognitive Abilities Beyond “g” 89

Physical, Sensory, and Psychomotor Abilities 92

Physical Abilities 92

Sensory Abilities 93

Psychomotor Abilities 94

Personality and Work Behavior 94

The Big Five and Other Models of Personality 95

Implications of Broad Personality Models 97

Skills 99

Knowledge 99

Competencies 100

Emotional Intelligence 101

Module 3.3 Foundations of Assessment 104

The Past and the Present of Testing 104

What Is a Test? 106

What Is the Meaning of a Test Score? 106

What Is a Test Battery? 107

Where to Find Tests 107

Administrative Test Categories 108

Speed versus Power Tests 108

Group versus Individual Tests 108

Paper-and-Pencil versus Performance Tests 109

Testing and Culture 109

International Assessment Practices 111

Module 3.4 Assessment Procedures 113

Assessment Content versus Process 113

Assessment Procedures: Content 113

Cognitive Ability Tests 113

Knowledge Tests 115

Tests of Physical Abilities 115

Psychomotor Abilities 116

Personality 117

Practical Issues Associated with Personality Measures 117

Integrity Testing 120

Emotional Intelligence 122

Individual Assessment 122

Interviews 123

Assessment Centers 125

Work Samples and Situational Judgment Tests 128

Work Sample Tests 128

Situational Judgment Tests 129

Module 3.5 Special Topics in Assessment 132

Incremental Validity 132

Measuring Implicit Variables at Work 133

Biographical Data 133

Grades and Letters of Recommendation 135

Minimum Qualifications 136

Controversial Assessment Practices: Graphology and the Polygraph 137

Drug and Alcohol Testing 137

Computer-Based and Internet Assessment 138

Unproctored Internet Testing 140

Mobile Assessment 140

Computer Adaptive Testing 141

4 Job Analysis and Performance 143

Module 4.1 A Basic Model of Performance 144

Campbell’s Model of Job Performance 144

Typical versus Maximum Performance 148

Criterion Deficiency and Contamination 149

Module 4.2 Extensions of the Basic Performance Model 151

Task Performance versus Organizational Citizenship Behavior 151

Causes and Correlates of OCB 153

The Dark Side of Performance: Counterproductive Work Behaviors 154

Dishonesty 155

Absenteeism 155

Sabotage 155

Causes of and Treatments for CWB 156

OCB and CWB: Two Ends of the Same Continuum? 157

Adaptive Performance 157

A Brief Recap 159

Expert Performance 159

Types of Performance Measures 160

Module 4.3 Job Analysis: Fundamental Properties and Practices 162

The Uses of Job Analysis Information 162

Job Description 162

Recruiting 162

Selection 163

Training 163

Compensation 163

Promotion/Job Assignment 163

Job Design 164

Workforce Reduction/Restructuring 165

Criterion Development 165

Performance Evaluation 166

Litigation 166

Types of Job Analysis 166

How Job Analysis Is Done 167

Work Analysis 169

Module 4.4 Job Analysis: Newer Developments 170

Electronic Performance Monitoring as Part of a Job Analysis 170

Cognitive Task Analysis 171

Personality-Based Job Analysis 172

A Summary of the Job Analysis Process 172

Computer-Based Job Analysis 173

O*NET 173

Competency Modeling 175

Module 4.5 Job Evaluation and the Law 178

Job Evaluation 178

The Concept of Comparable Worth 179

Job Analysis and Employment Litigation 180

5 Performance Measurement 183

Module 5.1 Basic Concepts in Performance Measurement 184

Uses for Performance Information 184

Relationships among Performance Measures 185

Hands-On Performance Measures 186

Electronic Performance Monitoring 187

Performance Management 189

Module 5.2 Performance Rating—Substance 192

Theories of Performance Rating 192

Focus on Performance Ratings 193

Overall Performance Ratings 193

Trait Ratings 193

Task-Based Ratings 194

Critical Incidents Methods 194

OCB and Adaptive Performance Ratings 194

Structural Characteristics of a Performance Rating Scale 195

Rating Formats 195

Graphic Ratings Scales 195

Checklists 197

Behavioral Ratings 198

Employee Comparison Methods 199

A New Variation on the Paired Comparison Method: CARS 200

Concluding Thoughts on Performance Rating Formats 201

Module 5.3 Performance Rating—Process 203

Rating Sources 203

Supervisors 203

Peers 205

Self-Ratings 205

Subordinate Ratings 206

Customer and Supplier Ratings 206

360-Degree Systems 206

Rating Distortions 207

Central Tendency Error 207

Leniency/Severity Error 207

Halo Error 207

Rater Training 208

Administrative Training 208

Psychometric Training 208

Frame-of-Reference Training 208

Reliability and Validity of Performance Ratings 209

Reliability 209

Validity 209

Module 5.4 The Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluation 211

The Motivation to Rate 211

Goal Conflict 213

Performance Feedback 214

Destructive Criticism 214

360-Degree Feedback 215

Performance Evaluation and Culture 217

Performance Evaluation and the Law 218

Performance Evaluation and Protected Groups 221

6 Staffing Decisions 225

Module 6.1 Conceptual Issues in Staffing 226

An Introduction to the Staffing Process 226

The Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performance 227

Stakeholders in the Staffing Process 228

Line Managers 229

Co-Workers 229

Applicants 229

Staffing from the International Perspective 230

Module 6.2 Evaluation of Staffing Outcomes 233

Validity 233

Selection Ratios 234

Prediction Errors and Cut Scores 234

Establishing Cut Scores 236

Utility 237

Fairness 238

Module 6.3 Practical Issues in Staffing 240

A Staffing Model 240

Comprehensive Selection Systems 240

Compensatory Selection Systems 240

Combining Information 241

Statistical versus Clinical Decision Making 241

The Hurdle System of Combining Scores 241

Combining Scores by Regression (the Compensatory Approach) 243

Deselection 244

Number of Decisions to Be Made 244

Large Staffing Projects 244

Small Staffing Projects 246

21st-Century Staffing 247

Module 6.4 Legal Issues in Staffing Decisions 249

Charges of Employment Discrimination 249

Employment Discrimination outside of the United States 250

Theories of Discrimination 251

Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatment 251

Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impact 251

7 Training and Development 257

Module 7.1 Foundations of Training and Learning 258

Training, Learning, and Performance 259

Training Needs Analysis 260

The Learning Process in Training 262

Trainee Characteristics 262

Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Training 264

Principles of Learning 267

Learning Organizations 269

Module 7.2 Content and Methods of Training 272

Training Methods 272

On-Site Training Methods 272

Off-Site Training Methods 274

Distance Learning and Computer-Based Training 275

Training “Critical Thinking” 276

Transfer of Training 277

Module 7.3 Evaluating Training Programs 280

Training Evaluation 280

Training Criteria 280

Utility Analysis 282

Training Evaluation Designs 282

Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in Training 284

Module 7.4 Specialized Training Programs 286

Management and Leadership Development 286

Assessment Centers 286

360-Degree Feedback 287

Coaching 288

Informal Training 289

Sexual Harassment Awareness Training 290

Ethics Training 291

Cross-Cultural Training 292

PART 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

8 The Motivation to Work 297

Module 8.1 An Introduction to Motivation 298

The Central Position of Motivation in Psychology 298

A Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology 299

Metaphors for Motivation 300

Person as Machine 301

Person as Scientist 301

The Meaning and Importance of Motivation in the Workplace 302

Motivation and Performance 302

Motivation and Work–Life Balance 303

Motivation and Personality 304

Module 8.2 Motivational Theories—Classic Approaches 306

Person-as-Machine Theories 306

An Internal Mechanical Theory: Maslow’s Need Theory 306

An External Mechanical Theory: Reinforcement Theory 307

Person-as-Scientist Theories 309

Vroom’s VIE Theory 309

Equity Theory 310

Module 8.3 Modern Approaches to Work Motivation 313

Person-as-Intentional Approaches 313

Goal-Setting Theory 313

Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulation 316

The Concept of Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory 317

Common Themes in Modern Motivation Approaches 318

A New Motivational Topic: The Entrepreneur 319

Module 8.4 Practical Issues in Motivation 323

Can Motivation Be Measured? 323

Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation 324

Generational Differences and Work Motivation 325

Motivational Interventions 328

Contingent Rewards 328

ProMES 329

9 Attitudes, Emotions, and Work 333

Module 9.1 Work Attitudes 334

The Experience of Emotion at Work 334

Job Satisfaction: Some History 335

The Early Period of Job Satisfaction Research 335

Antecedents and Consequences of Job Satisfaction 336

The Measurement of Job Satisfaction 340

Overall versus Facet Satisfaction 340

Satisfaction Questionnaires 341

The Concept of Commitment 343

Forms of Commitment 343

Organizational Identification 345

Employee Engagement 348

Module 9.2 Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior 350

Is Everybody Happy? Does It Matter If They Are? 350

Satisfaction versus Mood versus Emotion 350

Dispositions and Affectivity 352

The Time Course of Emotional Experience 353

Genetics and Job Satisfaction 355

The Concept of Core Self-Evaluations 355

Withdrawal Behaviors 357

Module 9.3 Special Topics Related to Attitudes and Emotions 359

Job Loss 359

Telecommuting 361

Work–Family Balance 363

Psychological Contracts 365

Work-Related Attitudes and Emotions

from a Cross-Cultural

Perspective 366

10 Stress and Worker Well-Being 369

Module 10.1 The Problem of Stress 370

Studying Workplace Stress 370

What Is a Stressor? 372

Common Stressors at Work 373

Physical/Task Stressors 373

Psychological Stressors 374

Consequences of Stress 378

Behavioral Consequences of Stress 378

Psychological Consequences of Stress 380

Physiological Consequences of Stress 381

Work Schedules 382

Shift Work 382

Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules 383

Module 10.2 Theories of Stress 387

Demand–Control Model 387

Person–Environment Fit Model 388

Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress 389

The Type A Behavior Pattern 391

Module 10.3 Reducing and Managing Stress 395

Primary Prevention Strategies 395

Work and Job Design 396

Secondary Prevention Strategies 397

Stress Management Training 397

Relaxation and Biofeedback Techniques 398

Social Support 399

Tertiary Prevention Strategies 399

Summary of Stress Intervention Strategies 400

Module 10.4 Violence at Work 402

Stress and Workplace Violence 402

The “Typical” Violent Worker 403

Theories of Workplace Violence 404

Frustration–Aggression Hypothesis 404

The Justice Hypothesis 406

A Special Type of Violence: Bullying 408

What Can We Conclude about

Workplace Violence? 410

11 Fairness, Justice, and Diversity in the Workplace 413

Module 11.1 Justice and Fairness 414

The Concept of Justice 414

Justice, Fairness, and Trust 415

Approaches to Organizational Justice 417

Distributive Justice 417

Procedural Justice 419

Interactional Justice 421

Justice versus Injustice 422

Module 11.2 The Practical Implications of Justice Perceptions 424

Performance Evaluation 425

Applicant Reactions to Selection Procedures 426

Affirmative Action 429

Culture and Affirmative Action Programs 431

Module 11.3 Diversity 433

What Does Diversity Mean? 433

The Dynamics of Diversity 434

Group and Multicultural Diversity 436

Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspective 437

Leadership and Diversity 440

12 Leadership 441

Module 12.1 The Concept of Leadership 442

Some Conceptual Distinctions 442

Leader Emergence versus Leadership Effectiveness 442

Leader Emergence 443

The Problem of Defining Leadership Outcomes 444

Negative Leadership Outcomes: The Destructive Leader 445

Tyrannical 445

Derailed 445

Supportive-Disloyal 445

Leader versus Manager or Supervisor 446

The Blending of Managerial and Leadership Roles 447

Leader Development versus Leadership Development 449

The Motivation to Lead 450

Module 12.2 T raditional Theories of Leadership 453

The “Great Man” Theories 453

The Trait Approach 454

The Power Approach to Leadership 454

The Behavioral Approach 455

The Ohio State University Studies 455

The University of Michigan Studies 456

The Contingency Approach 457

The Consequences of Participation: The Vroom–Yetton Model 457

Module 12.3 N ew Approaches to Leadership 460

Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) 460

Transformational Leadership 462

Authentic Leadership 465

The Charismatic Leader 466

Module 12.4 E merging Topics and Challenges in Leadership Research 469

Leadership in a Changing Workplace 469

Knowledge-Oriented Organizations 469

Teams/Groups 469

Telecommuting 470

Temporary Workers 470

Fuzzy Job Boundaries 471

Male and Female Leaders: Are They Different? 471

The Demographics of Leadership 471

The Leadership Styles of Men and Women 473

Personality and Leadership 475

Leadership and Neuroscience 476

Cross-Cultural Studies of Leadership 477

Leadership in a Diverse Environment 479

Guidelines for Effective Leadership 480

13 Teams in Organizations 483

Module 13.1 Types of Teams 484

Groups and Teams: Definitions 485

Types of Teams 485

Quality Circles 486

Project Teams 487

Production Teams 487

Virtual Teams 488

Module 13.2 Input–Process–Output Model of Team Effectiveness 492

Team Inputs 493

Organizational Context 493

Team Task 493

Team Composition 494

Team Diversity 495

Team Processes 496

Norms 496

Communication and Coordination 497

Cohesion 498

Decision Making 499

Team Outputs 500

Module 13.3 S pecial Issues in Teams 503

Team Appraisal and Feedback 503

ProMES 504

Team Roles 505

Team Development 506

Team Training 506

Cultural Issues in Teams 507

14 Organizational Theory, Dynamics, and Change 511

Module 14.1 Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations of Organizations 512

Organizations and People 512

Organization as Integration 515

Theories of Organization 516

Classic Organizational Theory 516

Human Relations Theory 517

Contingency Theories 519

Systems Theory 521

Module 14.2 S ocial Dynamics of Organizations 524

Climate and Culture 524

A Brief History of Climate and Culture 525

Climate and Culture from the Multicultural Perspective 526

When Cultures Clash 527

An Application of Culture and Climate: Safety 528

Socialization and the Concept of Person–Organization (P–O) and Person–Job (P–J) Fit 530

Organizational Socialization 530

Positive Consequences of Socialization 533

Socialization and National Culture 534

Models of Socialization and Person– Organization Fit 535

Module 14.3 Organizational Development and Change 539

Organizational Change 539

Episodic Change 540

Continuous Change 541

Resistance to Change 542

Examples of Large-Scale Organizational Change Initiatives 543

Total Quality Management 544

Six Sigma Systems 545

Lean Production Manufacturing 545

Emerging Commonalities among Organizational Interventions 547

Glossary G-1

References* R-1

Name Index I-1

Subject Index I-16

  • Presents new topics, including corporate social responsibility, big data, mobile assessment, work analysis, neuroscience in leadership, and positive work environments. 
  • Updates in every chapter, including new or expanded coverage of topics such as emotional intelligence, recommendation letters, adaptive performance, electronic performance monitoring, performance management systems, high performance work practices, social networking and the workplace, corporate universities, and the factors that influence innovation in teams.
  • A wealth of new material has been added, and less current material has been removed.
  • Modular approach: The text features self-contained sections within chapters, for maximum teaching flexibility. Each module ends with point summaries and key terms.
  • Cutting-edge topics and research coverage: Includes the Five Factor Theory of Personality, emotional intelligence, culture and emotions, genetics and job satisfaction, achieving balance between work and non-work, stress and violence, bullying, measuring motivation, integrity testing, entrepreneurship, computer-based assessment, male vs. female leaders, cross cultural teams, and more.
  • Emphasis on critical thinking: One of the goals of this book is to show how many of the broad principles of I-O psychology can be applied in situations at work.  Thus, the text emphasizes critical thinking, and the Instructor’s Manual includes critical thinking questions that can be used inside or outside of class to help students to think about situations in the workplace and apply the principles and concepts they've learned.
  • Case Studies and Boxes provide concrete, contemporary examples of the issues involved in work and behavior in various applied settings.
  • Clear, articulate explanations: The clear prose and interesting examples make the book accessible to a wide range of students.