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Aerated Foods: Principles, Formation and Stability

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Aerated Foods: Principles, Formation and Stability

Ganesan Narsimhan

ISBN: 978-1-119-59146-7 June 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 432 Pages

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Description

Explore the roles aeration can play in the production, stability, and consumer experience of foods

Aeration is an increasingly prevalent part of food manufacturing, bringing a light texture, enhanced appearance, and richer flavors to a wide range of products. Essential to the creation of everything from ice cream and popcorn to cheese and beer, the incorporation of fine air bubbles into the foods we consume can also boost satiety and thus reduce calorific intake. Aerated Foods examines this process in detail, offering a complete overview of all aspects of aeration.

With sections that address the effects of aeration upon product structure and stability, this informative book explains how food formulation influences the shelf life, texture, and overall experience of different foods. Chapters also outline the various methods by which aeration can be achieved, breaking down the science and technology involved in the incorporation of air

  • Details the mechanisms and overall results of aeration as a method of food processing
  • Covers innovative and experimental aeration techniques
  • Looks at the role of aeration in baking

Aerated Foods provides food scientists, researchers, and product developers with an invaluable guide to this multifaceted and fast-growing method of food production.

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1

2 Role of Food Emulsifiers, Proteins, and Polysaccharides in Stabilization 3

2.1 Surface Activity 3

2.1.1 Food Emulsifiers 3

2.1.1.1 Small Molecular Weight Surfactants 4

2.1.1.2 Phase Diagram of Surfactants 5

2.1.1.3 Phospholipids 8

2.1.1.4 Monolaurin 9

2.1.2 Models for the Surface Equation of State for Soluble Surfactants 10

2.1.2.1 Dynamics of Adsorption 14

2.1.3 Proteins 16

2.1.3.1 Adsorption Isotherm 16

2.1.3.2 Kinetics of Adsorption of Protein 20

2.1.3.3 The Evaluation of the Interaction Potential 23

2.1.4 Protein–Emulsifier Interactions 28

2.2 Interparticle Forces 30

2.2.1 van der Waals Interactions 30

2.2.1.1 Interaction Between Macroscopic Bodies 32

2.2.1.2 Effect of Intervening Medium 35

2.2.1.3 Retardation Effect 37

2.2.2 Electrostatic Interactions 38

2.2.2.1 Electrical Double Layer 38

2.2.2.2 Debye–Huckel Approximation 40

2.2.3 Gouy–Chapman Theory of Electrical Double Layers 45

2.2.4 Overlap of Electrical Double Layers 47

2.2.5 Simple Algorithm for Numerical Evaluation of the Interaction Force due to the Overlap of Double Layers 51

2.2.6 Dergauguin Approximation 53

2.2.7 Steric Interaction 56

2.2.7.1 Interpenetration Zone: 2R + δ < s < 2(R + δ) 56

2.2.7.2 Interpenetration Plus Compression Zone: 2R < s < 2R + δ 57

2.2.8 Flory–Huggins Lattice Theory 57

2.2.8.1 Entropy of Mixing 57

2.2.8.2 Enthalpy of Mixing 59

2.2.8.3 Chemical Potential 60

2.2.9 Steric Interaction Between Two Flat Plates with Adsorbed Macromolecules 60

2.2.9.1 Interpenetration Regime 60

2.2.9.2 Constant Segment Density 63

2.2.9.3 Interpenetration Plus Compression 64

2.2.9.4 Steric Interaction Between Spherical Particles 65

2.2.10 Interaction Due to Free Macromolecules 66

2.2.10.1 Improved Model by Feigin and Napper 70

2.3 Interfacial Rheology 74

2.3.1 Polymer Theory for Interfacial Rheology 77

2.3.2 Shear Rheology 84

2.3.3 Dilatational Rheological Properties 89

2.3.4 Effect of Interfacial Rheology on Bubble Coalescence in Protein Stabilized Gas–Liquid Dispersions 94

References 104

3 Experimental Methods 111

3.1 Overrun 111

3.2 Half-life 112

3.3 Surface Tension 112

3.3.1 Wilhelmy Plate 112

3.3.2 Capillary Rise Method 113

3.3.3 Surface Tension from Bubble Shape 113

3.4 Contact Angle 115

3.5 Adsorption Isotherm of Emulsifiers 116

3.6 Surface Charge and Potential with Electrophoresis 117

3.6.1 Thick Electrical Double Layer 118

3.6.2 Thin Electrical Double Layer 119

3.6.3 General Case 121

3.6.4 Measurement of Electrophoretic Mobility 122

3.7 Interfacial Rheology 123

3.7.1 Interfacial Shear Rheology 123

3.7.1.1 Linear Viscoelastic Model 125

3.7.2 Dilatational Rheology 127

3.8 Bulk Rheology 130

3.8.1 Capillary Flow Viscometer 130

3.8.2 Parallel Disk Rheometer 134

3.8.3 Yield Stress 135

3.9 Osmotic Pressure 137

3.10 Bubble Size Measurement 139

3.10.1 Microscopy 139

3.10.2 Diffusive-Wave Spectroscopy 141

3.11 Liquid Holdup Profiles in Aerated Foods 143

3.11.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 143

3.11.1.1 Interaction of Proton Spin with Magnetic Field 143

3.11.1.2 Spin–Lattice Interaction 144

3.11.1.3 Spin–Spin Interaction 144

3.11.1.4 Measurement of Liquid Density Profile in a Foam 146

3.11.2 Electrical Conductivity 147

3.11.2.1 Electrical Conductivity of a Suspension of Bubbles 147

3.11.2.2 Electrical Conductivity of Deformable Bubbles 148

3.12 Fluorescence and Brewster Angle Microscopy 149

3.12.1 Fluorescence Microscopy 149

3.12.2 Brewster Angle Microscopy 151

3.13 Thin Film Drainage Using Interference 152

3.14 Coalescence Time 154

References 155

4 Mechanism of Destabilization 157

4.1 Flocculation 157

4.1.1 Brownian Flocculation 157

4.2 Coalescence 166

4.2.1 Thin Film Drainage 166

4.2.2 Thin Film Stability to Thermal Fluctuations 176

4.2.3 Governing Equations 176

4.2.4 Stability of Thin Films to Mechanical Perturbations 185

4.2.4.1 Model Description 185

4.2.4.2 Case I: Unstable Film 191

4.2.4.3 Case II: Stable Film 195

4.2.4.4 Rupture Time Distribution 198

4.3 Particle Stabilized Foam 203

4.3.1 Particle Detachment Energy 204

4.3.2 Double Layer of Particles 208

4.3.3 Thin Film Stabilized at Very Low Particle Concentration 211

4.3.3.1 Outer Film 214

4.3.3.2 Monolayer Coverage of Particles 219

4.3.3.3 Two Layers of Particles 220

4.3.3.4 Multilayer of Particles 220

4.4 Structure of Foam 226

4.4.1 Syneresis 230

4.4.1.1 Liquid Holdup Profile in a Standing Foam Under Mechanical Equilibrium 231

4.4.2 Disjoining Pressure 234

4.4.2.1 Van der Waals Interaction 234

4.4.2.2 Double Layer Interaction 234

4.4.2.3 Steric Interaction 235

4.4.3 Osmotic Pressure 236

4.4.4 Gravitational Syneresis 237

4.5 Unsteady State Drainage of Standing Foam 241

4.5.1 Model for Drainage of a Stationary Foam 243

4.5.2 Velocity of Gravity Drainage Through a Plateau Border 246

4.5.3 Effect of Plateau Border Nodes on Drainage 250

4.5.3.1 Pressure Drop Through the Node 254

4.5.4 Comparison of the Timescales of Film and Plateau Border Drainage 257

4.5.5 Simplified Equations for Drainage of a Standing Foam 260

4.5.6 Transients of Foam Drainage 261

4.5.7 Effect of Bubble Size 263

4.5.8 Effect of Foam Height 267

4.5.9 Effect of Viscosity 269

4.5.10 Effect of pH 272

4.5.11 Effect of Ionic Strength 273

4.5.12 Effect of Different Proteins 273

4.5.13 Comparison of Model with Experiments 275

4.5.14 Effect of Nodes on Foam Drainage 276

4.6 Population Balance Analysis 280

4.6.1 Number Balance for Bubbles 282

4.6.2 Mass Balance for Films 283

4.6.3 Mass Balance for Plateau Borders 283

4.6.4 Velocity of Thinning of a Foam Film 284

4.6.5 Interbubble Diffusion 286

4.6.6 Coalescence Frequency 287

References 288

5 Formation of Aerated Products 291

5.1 Bubble Formation by Shear 291

5.2 Extensional Flow 300

5.3 Bubble Breakup in Turbulent Flow 306

5.4 Bubble Breakage Rate 308

5.5 Bubble Coalescence 309

5.5.1 Drainage of the Continuous Phase Film 310

5.5.2 Turbulent Force 311

5.6 Models for Coalescence Efficiency 311

5.6.1 Rate of Dissociation of Doublet 313

5.6.2 Role of Surfactants 317

5.7 Foam Formation in a Rotor-Stator Mixer 319

5.7.1 Foamability 322

5.7.2 Apparent Viscosity 327

5.7.3 Bubble Size 329

References 329

6 Baking 333

6.1 Unleavened Aerated Food 333

6.1.1 Experimental Results 336

6.1.2 Phenomenological Model 341

6.1.3 Mechanistic Model 343

6.1.4 Bubble Expansion 350

6.1.5 Evaporation of Moisture 352

6.1.6 Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients 353

6.1.6.1 Natural Convection 353

6.1.6.2 Forced Convection 354

6.2 Bubble Coalescence and Open Cell Formation 358

6.3 Leavened Aerated Food 361

6.3.1 Proofing of Bread 362

6.3.1.1 Newtonian Fluid 362

6.3.1.2 Viscoelastic Medium 366

6.3.1.3 Non-dimensional Equations 367

6.3.1.4 Shell Model for Dispersion of Finite Volume Fraction 374

6.3.1.5 Effect of Bubble Size Distribution 378

6.3.2 Baking of Leavened Food 380

6.3.2.1 Dimensionless Equations 382

6.3.2.2 Evaporation of Moisture 384

References 388

7 Rheology of Aerated Food Products 391

7.1 Rheology of Dilute Gas–Liquid Dispersion 391

7.2 Rheology of Concentrated Gas–Liquid Dispersions 392

7.3 Rheology of Bubbly Liquid 396

7.4 Rheology of Foam 397

7.4.1 Two-dimensional Model for Foam Structure and Cell Deformation 398

7.5 Experimental Characterization of Foam Rheology 403

References 408

Index 411