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Corrosion and Materials in Hydrocarbon Production: A Compendium of Operational and Engineering Aspects

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Corrosion and Materials in Hydrocarbon Production: A Compendium of Operational and Engineering Aspects

Dr. Bijan Kermani, Don Harrop

ISBN: 978-1-119-51573-9 March 2019 320 Pages

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Description

Comprehensively covers the engineering aspects of corrosion and materials in hydrocarbon production

This book captures the current understanding of corrosion processes in upstream operations and provides a brief overview of parameters and measures needed for optimum design of facilities. It focuses on internal corrosion occurring in hydrocarbon production environments and the key issues affecting its occurrence, including: the types and morphology of corrosion damage; principal metallic materials deployed; and mitigating measures to optimise its occurrence. The book also highlights important areas of progress and challenges, and looks toward the future of research and development to enable improved and economical design of facilities for oil and a gas production.

Written for both those familiar and unfamiliar with the subject—and by two authors with more than 60 years combined industry experience—this book covers everything from Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRAs) to internal metal loss corrosion threats, corrosion in injection systems to microbiologically influenced corrosion, corrosion risk analysis to corrosion and integrity management, and more, notably: 

  • Comprehensively covers the engineering aspects of corrosion and materials in hydrocarbon production
  • Written by two, renowned experts in the field
  • Offers practical guide to those unfamiliar with the subject whilst providing a focused roadmap to addressing the topics in a precise and methodical manner
  • Covers all aspects of corrosion threat and remedial and mitigation measures in upstream hydrocarbon production applicable to sub-surface, surface, and transportation facilities
  • Outlines technology challenges that need further research as a pre-cursor to moving the industry forward.

Operational and Engineering Aspects of Corrosion and Materials in Hydrocarbon Production is an excellent guide for both practicing materials and corrosion engineers working in hydrocarbons production as well as those entering the area who may not be fully familiar with the subject. 

Preface xvii

Acknowledgement xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Scope and Objectives 2

1.2 The Impact of Corrosion 2

1.3 Principal Types of Corrosion in Hydrocarbon Production 5

1.4 The Way Ahead: Positive Corrosion 7

1.5 Summary 8

References 9

Bibliography 9

2 Carbon and Low Alloy Steels (CLASs) 11

2.1 Steel Products 11

2.2 Development of Mechanical Properties 12

2.3 Strengthening Mechanisms 14

2.4 Hardenability 16

2.5 Weldability 16

2.6 Line Pipe Steels 17

2.7 Well Completion Downhole Tubulars 17

2.8 Internally Clad Materials 18

2.9 Summary 18

Reference 20

Bibliography 20

API/ISO Specifications 20

ASME Standard 21

Further Reading 21

3 Corrosion‐Resistant Alloys (CRAs) 23

3.1 Background 23

3.2 Alloying Elements, Microstructures, and their Significance for Corrosion Performance 24

3.3 Common Types/Grades of CRA Used in the Hydrocarbon Production Systems 30

3.4 Important Metallurgical Aspects of CRAs 33

3.5 Limits of Application 36

3.6 Selection Criteria 37

3.7 Future Demands and Requirements 39

3.8 Summary 40

References 41

Bibliography 42

Specifications 42

Further Reading 42

4 Water Chemistry 43

4.1 Sources of Water 44

4.2 Water Chemistry 45

4.3 Other Impacts on Corrosivity 46

4.4 Water Sampling Locations and Analysis Techniques 49

4.5 Influential Parameters in System Corrosivity 53

4.6 Summary 54

References 54

Bibliography 55

Standards 55

5 Internal Metal Loss Corrosion Threats 57

5.1 CO2 Metal Loss Corrosion 58

5.2 Key Influential Factors 60

5.3 Metal Loss CO2 Corrosion Prediction 63

5.4 Metal Loss Corrosion in Mixed H2S/CO2 Containing Streams 66

5.5 Summary 68

References 69

Bibliography 71

6 Environmental Cracking (EC) 73

6.1 Environmental Cracking Threat in Steels 73

6.2 EC Associated with Hydrogen Sulphide 74

6.3 Current Industry Practices 83

6.4 ISO 15156 83

6.5 Summary 86

Bibliography 87

7 Corrosion in Injection Systems 89

7.1 The Intent 90

7.2 Injection Systems 90

7.3 Water Treatment Methods 92

7.4 Water Corrosivity 94

7.5 Means of Corrosion Prediction 95

7.6 Materials Options 97

7.7 Supplementary Notes 100

7.8 Hydrotesting 101

7.9 Summary 103

References 104

Bibliography 104

8 Corrosion Mitigation by the Use of Inhibitor Chemicals 105

8.1 Inhibitor Characteristics 105

8.2 Inhibitor Testing and Application 111

8.3 Inhibitor Application/Deployment 116

8.4 Summary 119

References 120

9 Coating Systems 123

9.1 External Pipeline Coatings 123

9.2 Internal Coating and Lining 128

9.3 External Painting of Structures 130

9.4 Summary 132

References 132

Bibliography 132

10 Corrosion Trending 133

10.1 The Purpose of Corrosion Trending 134

10.2 Corrosion Monitoring 135

10.3 Corrosion Barrier Monitoring 142

10.4 Collection and Analysis of Real‐Time Monitoring Data 143

10.5 Downhole Corrosion Monitoring 145

10.6 Inspection Techniques 146

10.7 Intelligent Pigging 147

10.8 Future Considerations 149

10.9 Summary 150

References 150

Bibliography 151

Specifications 151

11 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 153

11.1 Main Features 154

11.2 The Primary Causes 155

11.3 The Motive for Promotion of Corrosion by Micro‐organisms 157

11.4 Most Susceptible Locations and Conditions 161

11.5 Potential Prevention Measures 165

11.6 Means of Monitoring 168

11.7 Summary 170

References 171

Bibliography 172

12 Dense Phase CO2 Corrosion 173

12.1 Background 173

12.2 CO2 Stream Composition 175

12.3 Corrosion in the Presence of Aqueous Phases 177

12.4 Means of Corrosion Prediction 178

12.5 Method of Corrosion Mitigation 179

12.6 Summary 181

References 181

13 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) 183

13.1 Historical Context 183

13.2 Key Parameters Affecting CUI 184

13.3 CUI Prevention Methods 189

13.4 CUI Mitigation Strategy 192

13.5 CUI Inspection 193

13.6 NDE/NDT Techniques to Detect CUI 195

13.7 Summary 196

References 197

14 Metallic Materials Optimisation Routes 199

14.1 Background 199

14.2 Production Facilities 200

14.3 The Operating Regimes 204

14.4 System Corrosivity 205

14.5 Oxygen Corrosion 206

14.6 Metallic Materials Optimisation Methodology 206

14.7 Materials Options 207

14.8 Internal Corrosion Mitigation Methods 208

14.9 Whole Life Cost (WLC) Analysis 210

14.10 Materials Optimisation Strategy 211

14.11 Summary 212

References 212

Bibliography 213

15 Non‐metallic Materials: Elastomer Seals and Non‐metallic Liners 215

15.1 Elastomer Seals 215

15.2 Non‐metallic Liner Options for Corrosion Control 221

15.3 Flexible Pipes 226

15.4 Summary 229

References 230

Bibliography 230

16 Cathodic Protection (CP) 231

16.1 Key Points of Effectiveness 232

16.2 Cathodic Protection in Environmental Waters 232

16.3 Cathodic Protection and Hydrogen‐Induced Cracking (HAC) 237

16.4 Cathodic Protection of Structures in Contact with the Ground 238

16.5 Cathodic Protection of Well Casings 240

16.6 Cathodic Protection and AC Interference 241

16.7 Inspection and Testing 242

16.8 Internal Cathodic Protection Systems 242

16.9 Summary 242

16.10 Terminologies 243

References 244

Bibliography 245

17 Corrosion Risk Analysis 247

17.1 Risk 248

17.2 The Bow Tie Concept 248

17.3 Risk Matrix 249

17.4 Corrosion RBA Process 250

17.5 Corrosion RBA: Input 251

17.6 Corrosion RBA: Analysis 252

17.7 Corrosion RBA: Output 255

17.8 Corrosion RBA: Overall Process 257

17.9 Risky Business 258

17.10 Behaviours 258

17.11 Bayes’ Theorem 259

17.12 Moving Forward 260

17.13 Summary 260

References 261

18 Corrosion and Integrity Management 263

18.1 Integrity Management (IM) 263

18.2 Corrosion Management (CM) 266

18.3 Data Management 271

18.4 The Future 274

18.5 Summary 275

References 276

Bibliography 276

19 Corrosion and Materials Challenges in Hydrocarbon Production 277

19.1 Energy Viewpoint and the Role of Technology 277

19.2 Future Focus Areas and Horizon 278

19.3 Challenges in Materials and Corrosion Technology 278

19.4 Shortfalls in Technology Implementation and Knowledge Partnership 279

19.5 Summary 284

References 284

Bibliography 286

Abbreviations 287

Index 291