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Energetic Materials and Munitions: Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact, and Demilitarization

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$132.99

Energetic Materials and Munitions: Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact, and Demilitarization

Adam Stewart Cumming (Editor), Mark S. Johnson (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-81666-8 February 2019 264 Pages

Description

Provides a hands-on approach to demilitarization and environmental aspects of energetic materials and munitions

This book gives an overview of the environmental impact of the production, use, and cleanup of energetic materials and munitions. It provides scientists, engineers, environmental specialists, and users with the understanding of environmental issues for munitions and of the ways to improve design and manage potential risks. It covers the various aspects of how chemical properties influence fate, transport, and toxicity of new formulations and prescribes tools for reducing or alleviating environmental risks. In addition, it discusses pyrotechnics and the problem of dealing with munitions underwater.

Chapters in Energetic Materials and Munitions: Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact and Demilitarization look at demilitarization in general, as well as in the future. Topics covered include logistics, costs, and management; life cycle analysis and management; and greener munitions. Another introduces readers to the "One Health" approach in the design of sustainable munition compounds. Following that, readers are taught about land assessment for munitions-related contamination in military live-fire training. The book also examines the development and integration of environmental, safety, and occupational health information.

-Brings together in one source expertise and in-depth information on the current and future state of how we handle the production, use, and demilitarization of explosives and weaponry
-A handy reference for experienced practitioners, as well as for training young professionals in the field
-Every chapter contains real-life examples and proposes future directions for the field

Energetic Materials and Munitions: Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact and Demilitarization is an important book for explosives specialists, pyrotechnicians, materials scientists, military authorities, safety officers, health officers, and chemical engineers.

Preface xi

1 Introduction and Overview 1
Adam S. Cumming

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Legislative Impact 2

1.3 NATO Studies 4

1.4 New Ingredients and Compositions 5

1.5 Toxicology 6

1.6 Life‐Cycle Analysis 7

1.7 Managing Contamination and Clean‐Up 7

1.8 Disposal Now and in the Future 8

1.9 Recycling 8

1.10 Conclusions 9

References 9

2 General Introduction to Ammunition Demilitarization 13
David Towndrow

2.1 Part one – Logistics, Costs, and Management 13

2.1.1 Introduction 13

2.1.2 Context of Demilitarization 14

2.1.2.1 The Scale of the Issue 14

2.1.2.2 Factors Influencing Demilitarization 15

2.1.3 Demilitarization Process 17

2.1.3.1 Basic Stages of Demilitarization 17

2.1.3.2 Demilitarization Facilities 20

2.1.4 Demilitarization Techniques 20

2.1.4.1 Demilitarization Techniques and Processes 20

2.1.4.2 Maturity and Use of Demilitarization Techniques 21

2.1.5 Summary 26

2.2 Part Two – Environmental Issues and Demilitarization 27

2.2.1 Introduction 27

2.2.2 Demilitarization Process 27

2.2.2.1 Technical and Environmental Issues 27

2.2.2.2 Open Burning (OB) and Open Detonation (OD) 29

2.2.2.3 Open Burning 32

2.2.2.4 Open Detonation 33

2.2.2.5 Examples of Cost and CO2 in Demilitarization Options 36

2.2.3 Design for Demilitarization (DFD) 40

2.2.3.1 NATO AOP 4518 (Revised 2018) 40

2.2.3.2 A Munition Manager’s Perspective of Disposal Plans 44

2.2.3.3 Future Trends 45

References 46

3 Assessment and Sustainment of the Environmental Health of Military Live‐fire Training Ranges 47
Sonia Thiboutot and Sylvie Brochu

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Background and Context 48

3.3 Munition‐Related Contaminants 51

3.4 Surface Soil Characterization in Live‐fire Training Ranges 52

3.4.1 Safety Aspects 53

3.4.2 Data Quality and Sampling Objectives 53

3.4.3 Importance of Soil Sample Processing to Ensure Representativeness 56

3.4.4 How Clean is Clean? 57

3.4.5 Risk to the Receptors Through the Transport of Munitions Constituents 58

3.5 Methodology for the Precise Measurements of MC Sources 61

3.5.1 Explosive Footprints in Impact Areas 61

3.5.2 Firing Positions 64

3.6 Tailored Management Practices: Mitigation and Remediation 67

3.6.1 Mitigation Measures 67

3.6.1.1 Analytical Tool and Adsorption Method for MCs in Aqueous Samples 67

3.6.1.2 Thermal Treatment of Shoulder Rocket Propellant‐Contaminated Surface and Subsurface Soils 68

3.7 Emerging Constituents 69

3.8 Conclusion 70

References 71

4 Greener Munitions 75
Sylvie Brochu and Sonia Thiboutot

4.1 Background and Context 75

4.2 Munitions Constituents of Concern 77

4.3 Source of Munitions Constituents 78

4.4 Greener Munitions Development Approach 79

4.5 RIGHTTRAC 82

4.5.1 Energetic Formulation Selection 83

4.5.1.1 Main Explosive Charge 83

4.5.1.2 Performance 83

4.5.1.3 IM Properties 83

4.5.1.4 Fate, Transport, and Toxicity 84

4.5.2 Main Propellant Charge 86

4.5.2.1 Performance 86

4.5.2.2 Modular Charges 87

4.5.2.3 IM Properties 87

4.5.2.4 Fate, Transport, and Toxicity 88

4.5.3 Field Demonstration 89

4.5.3.1 Final Selection 89

4.5.3.2 Gun Testing 89

4.5.3.3 Detonation Residues 90

4.5.4 Life‐Cycle Analysis 91

4.5.5 Summary 92

4.6 New Enhanced and Green Plastic Explosive for Demolition and Ordnance Disposal 92

4.6.1 PETN Option 93

4.6.1.1 Performance 93

4.6.1.2 Deposition Rate 94

4.6.1.3 Fate, Transport, and Toxicity 94

4.6.2 HMX Option 95

4.6.3 Summary 96

4.7 Conclusions 96

References 98

5 Pyrotechnics and The Environment 103
Ranko Vrcelj

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) 105

5.3 Qualification 107

5.4 Civilian Studies 107

5.5 Production 109

5.6 Site Location 110

5.7 Production 112

5.8 Raw Materials Acquisition and Quality Control 112

5.9 Specific Materials Production 114

5.10 Heavy Metals 115

5.11 Perchlorates and Chlorates 116

5.12 Smokes 116

5.13 Volatilization Smokes 116

5.14 Magnesium Teflon Viton (MTV) Countermeasures 116

5.15 Resins, Binders, and Solvents 117

5.16 Storage 117

5.17 Packaging Waste 118

5.18 Usage and Disposal 118

5.19 Heavy Metals 118

5.20 Perchlorates and Chlorates 122

5.21 Smokes 124

5.21.1 Obscurant Smokes 124

5.21.2 Volatilization Smokes 124

5.21.3 MTV 125

5.22 Disposal and Waste Burning 126

5.23 The Future? 127

5.24 Suitably Qualified and Experienced Person (SQEP) Issues 128

5.25 Integration 129

Acknowledgements 133

References 133

6 Munitions in the Sea 139
Sandro Carniel, Jacek Beldowsky, and Margo Edwards

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 The Controlling Factors 141

6.2.1 Environmental Aspects 141

6.2.2 Corrosion 142

6.2.3 Fate and Transport of Constituents 144

6.2.4 Sea‐Disposal Process 145

6.3 Tools for Assessment and Remediation 145

6.3.1 Acoustic Sensors 145

6.3.2 EM Sensors 146

6.3.3 Optical Sensors 146

6.3.4 Platforms 146

6.3.5 Navigation and Positioning 147

6.3.6 Remediation 149

6.4 The Outstanding Problems 150

6.4.1 Technical Aspects 150

6.4.1.1 Location 150

6.4.1.2 Detection 150

6.4.1.3 Monitoring 151

6.4.1.4 Handling 151

6.4.2 Environmental Aspects 152

6.4.2.1 Chemical Degradation of MEC 152

6.4.2.2 Long‐Term and Long‐Distance Transport 153

6.4.2.3 Ecotoxicological Aspects 154

6.4.3 Geopolitical Aspects 156

6.5 Moving Forward 159

6.5.1 Global Collaboration 159

6.5.2 Recent Global EU and NATO Efforts 160

6.5.3 Advantages of Joint Efforts 161

Glossary 162

Acknowledgements 163

References 163

7 Environmental Assessment of Military Systems with the Life‐Cycle Assessment Methodology 169
Carlos Ferreira, Fausto Freire, and José Ribeiro

7.1 Overview of the Life‐Cycle Assessment Methodology 170

7.1.1 Life‐Cycle Thinking 170

7.1.2 Life‐Cycle Assessment 171

7.1.3 Purpose of Life‐Cycle Assessment Studies 173

7.2 The Four Phases of the LCA Methodology Applied to a Case Study 174

7.2.1 Goal and Scope 174

7.2.1.1 Functional Unit 175

7.2.1.2 System Boundaries 176

7.2.2 Life‐Cycle Inventory 178

7.2.3 Life‐Cycle Impact Assessment 182

7.2.3.1 Life‐Cycle Impact Assessment Methods 185

7.2.3.2 Life‐Cycle Impact Assessment Software 187

7.2.3.3 Life‐Cycle Impact Assessment of the Case Study 188

7.3 Limitations of Life‐Cycle Assessment 194

7.4 Conclusions 194

References 195

8 Integrating the ‘One Health’ Approach in the Design of Sustainable Munition Systems 199
Mark S. Johnson

8.1 General Background 199

8.2 Munition Compounds and Aetiology of Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health Issues: Lessons Learnt 199

8.3 Core Operational ESOH Data: Needs and Requirements 200

8.3.1 Life Cycle Environmental Assessment 200

8.3.2 Bridging Communication Between Research and Acquisition 200

8.3.3 ESOH Data Requirements 201

8.3.3.1 Approaches 201

8.4 Current and Evolving Regulatory Interests 207

8.5 Case Studies and Cost Analysis 207

8.5.1 M116, 117, 118 Simulators 207

8.5.2 M‐18 Violet Smoke 208

8.5.3 Cost and Time Considerations 208

8.6 Summary 210

Acknowledgements 210

References 210

9 Overview of REACH Regulation and Its Implications for the Military Sector 213
Carlos Ferreira, Fausto Freire, and José Ribeiro 213

9.1 Introduction 213

9.2 Regulation for Hazard Substances 214

9.2.1 Overview of Previous Legislation Concerning Hazard Substances in the European Union 214

9.2.2 Overview of REACH Regulation 215

9.2.3 Discussion of REACH Regulation 217

9.3 Conclusions 225

References 225

10 Development and Integration of Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health Information 227
Mark S. Johnson

10.1 Introduction 227

10.2 Phased Approach to a Toxicology Data Requirement 228

10.3 Research, Development, Testing, and Evaluation 228

10.3.1 Conception 228

10.3.2 Synthesis 231

10.3.3 Testing/Demonstration 232

10.3.4 Acquisition 233

10.3.5 Engineering and Manufacturing 234

10.3.6 Demilitarization 235

10.4 Other Data Requirements 235

10.4.1 Environmental 235

10.4.1.1 Fate and Transport 235

10.4.1.2 Ecotoxicity 237

10.4.1.3 Field Monitoring 237

10.4.1.4 Disposal 237

10.4.1.5 Occupational – Industrial Hygiene 237

10.4.2 Regulatory 238

10.4.2.1 Toxic Substance Control Act 238

10.4.2.2 REACH 238

10.4.3 Integrating Weight‐of‐Evidence into Decision‐Making 238

10.5 Concluding Remarks 238

Acknowledgements 239

References 239

11 Research Priorities and the Future 241
Adam S. Cumming

11.1 Introduction 241

11.2 Greener Munitions 242

11.3 Studies and Their Effect 243

11.4 The Problems and the Changing Requirements 245

11.4.1 Land Management and History 246

11.5 Security Issues and Their Impact on Requirement 247

11.6 Future Options and Needs in a Changing Political Landscape 247

11.7 Conclusions 250

References 251

Index 253