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Managing Technology and Product Development Programmes: A Framework for Success

E-Book

$96.99

Managing Technology and Product Development Programmes: A Framework for Success

Peter Flinn

ISBN: 978-1-119-51725-2 February 2019 288 Pages

Description

An authoritative guide to new product development for early career engineers and engineering students

Managing Technology and Product Development Programmes provides a clear framework and essential guide for understanding how research ideas and new technologies are developed into reliable products which can sold successfully in the private or business marketplace. Drawing on the author’s practical experience in a variety of engineering industries, this important book fills a gap in the product development literature. It links back into the engineering processes that drives the actual creation of products and represents the practical realisation of innovation.

Comprehensive in scope, the book reviews all elements of new product development. The topics discussed range from the economics of new product development, the quality processes, prototype development, manufacturing processes, determining customer needs, value proposition and testing. Whilst the book is designed with an emphasis on engineered products, the principles can be applied to other fields as well. This important resource: 

  • Takes a holistic approach to new product development
  • Links technology and product development to business needs
  • Structures technology and product development from the basic idea to the completed off-the-shelf product
  • Explores the broad range of skills and the technical expertise needed when developing new products
  • Details the various levels of new technologies and products and how to track where they are in the development cycle

Written for engineers and students in engineering, as well as a more experienced audience, and for those funding technology development, Managing Technology and Product Development Programmes offers a thorough understanding of the skills and information engineers need in order to successfully convert ideas and technologies into products that are fit for the marketplace. 

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Why Write This Book? 1

1.2 Importance of the Product Development Process 3

1.3 Perspective of This Book 3

1.4 Intended Readership 4

1.5 Science, Technology, Innovation, Engineering, and Product Development 4

1.6 The Changing Nature of Engineering 5

1.7 The Fourth Industrial Revolution 7

1.8 Scope of This Book 7

1.9 Structure of This Book 8

1.10 Reading Sequence 10

References 10

2 Engineering as a Process 13

2.1 Background 13

2.2 The Basic Components of the Process 13

2.3 Expenditure on Research and Development 15

2.4 Economic Returns from R&D Work 17

2.5 Science as the Precursor of Technology 18

2.6 Iteration as the Heart of the Process 19

2.7 Impact of Low-Cost Computing 20

2.8 A Nonlinear Process? 20

2.9 Multiple, Parallel Activities 21

2.10 Right First Time versus Iteration 22

2.11 Lean Thinking Approach 22

2.12 Cost of Problem Resolution 23

2.13 Risk versus Time 24

2.14 Creativity versus Risk Management 26

2.15 Early Detection of Problems 28

2.16 Management of Change 28

2.17 Management of Learning 29

2.18 Governance of the Process 30

2.19 Formal Quality Management Systems 30

2.20 Concluding Points 31

References 32

3 Evaluating the Maturity of Developing Technology 35

3.1 Background 35

3.2 Origins of Technology Readiness Measurement 36

3.3 Purpose of Technology Maturity Assessment 37

3.4 Users of Technology Maturity Assessment 37

3.5 What Is Technology Maturity? 38

3.6 Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Structure 38

3.7 Phases of Technology Readiness 40

3.8 The ‘Valley of Death’ 42

3.9 Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) Structure 43

3.10 Progressing through the Scales – Some Practical Points 43

3.11 International Standards 48

3.12 Assessment of TRL and MRL Levels 49

3.13 Synchronising Technology and Manufacturing Maturity 52

3.14 Limitations of Technology Maturity Assessment 53

3.15 Concluding Points 54

References 54

4 Aligning Technology Development with Business and Manufacturing Strategy 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Business Context 57

4.3 Basis of Competition 59

4.4 The Value Proposition 60

4.5 Industry Structure 62

4.6 Routes to Commercialisation 63

4.7 Satisfying a Range of Customers 65

4.8 Linking to Manufacturing Strategy 66

4.9 Core Principles of Managing the Interface 66

4.10 Design for Manufacture Methodologies 67

4.11 Design for New Methods and Materials 69

4.12 Design for Connectivity – Internet of Things 70

4.13 Design for Environmental Considerations 70

4.14 Concluding Points 71

References 72

5 Planning and Managing the Work 73

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 The Basics 74

5.3 Different Approaches 75

5.4 Different Forms of Project 75

5.5 The Project Mandate or Charter 76

5.6 Project Description 77

5.7 Timing Charts 78

5.8 Milestone Charts 80

5.9 Risk Management 82

5.10 Resource Planning 84

5.11 Project Contingency 86

5.12 Organising for Projects 87

5.13 Monitoring Small Projects or Subprojects 89

5.14 Approval and Formal Monitoring of Large Projects 90

5.15 Project Management versus Technology Maturity Assessment 93

5.16 Concluding Points 93

References 93

6 Developing the Concept 95

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Key Elements of the Process 96

6.3 Technology Roadmapping 98

6.4 Open Innovation 99

6.5 Concept Development 100

6.6 Industrial Design 102

6.7 Key Success Factors 102

6.8 Identifying and Meeting Customer Needs 103

6.9 Customer Data Gathering 104

6.10 Who Is the Customer? 106

6.11 Linking Detailed Design to Customer Needs 106

6.12 Ensuring a Robust Design – Taguchi Methods 109

6.13 Technology and Manufacturing Development at the Concept Stage 111

6.14 Economic Evaluation 112

6.15 Protecting Intellectual Property 112

6.16 Funding of Early-Stage Work 114

6.17 Concluding Points 114

References 114

7 Identifying and Managing Engineering Risks 117

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Identification of Risks 118

7.3 Risk-Based Approach 119

7.4 Sources of Engineering Risk 121

7.5 Qualitative Risk Assessment Methodologies 122

7.6 Fault Tree Analysis 124

7.7 Hazard and Operability Reviews – HAZOP 126

7.8 Quantitative Risk Assessment 128

7.9 Functional Safety 128

7.10 As Low as Reasonably Practicable 130

7.11 Safety Cases 132

7.12 Stretching the Boundaries 132

7.13 Concluding Points 134

References 135

8 Validation by Modelling and Physical Testing 137

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Purpose of Development and Validation Work 138

8.3 Methods 139

8.4 Validation and Test Programmes 139

8.5 Engineering Calculation 140

8.6 Modelling and Simulation 141

8.7 Physical Testing 143

8.8 Prototypes Not Possible? 146

8.9 Physical Test and Laboratory Support Facilities 147

8.10 Correlation of Modelling and Testing 148

8.11 Assessment of Serviceability 148

8.12 Software Development and Validation 149

8.13 Reliability Testing 150

8.14 Corrective Action Management 152

8.15 Financial Validation 153

8.16 Concluding Points 154

References 156

9 Engineering Delivery 157

9.1 Introduction 157

9.2 Forms of Information Output 158

9.3 Connected Products – Internet of Things 159

9.4 Detailed Design 159

9.5 Handling the Interfaces 161

9.6 Cost of Delayed Programmes 162

9.7 Planning and Decision-Making 162

9.8 Specialised Resources 164

9.9 Flow of Information 165

9.10 The Importance of Good Systems 166

9.11 The Role of Standards and Design Codes 166

9.12 Tracking Product Cost and Investment 167

9.13 Knowing When to Stop 168

9.14 Signing Off the Product 169

9.15 Examples of Good and Bad Practice 169

9.16 Concluding Points 171

References 172

10 Funding the Programme 173

10.1 Introduction 173

10.2 Internal Funding 174

10.3 Friends and Family Funding 175

10.4 Angel Investors 176

10.5 Venture Capital Funding 177

10.6 Private Equity Funding 177

10.7 Equity Crowd-Funding 178

10.8 Bank Lending 178

10.9 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending 179

10.10 Public Funding of Early-Stage Work 179

10.11 Public Development Facilities 181

10.12 Business Plans 182

10.13 Concluding Points 182

References 183

11 Running Teams and Working with Partners 185

11.1 Introduction 185

11.2 Working Collaboratively 186

11.3 Team Composition 187

11.4 Team Development 188

11.5 Working with Partners 189

11.6 Working Internationally 191

11.7 Working Virtually 192

11.8 Leadership of Technology and Product Development Projects 193

11.9 Personality Traits 194

11.10 Selecting People 196

11.11 Developing People 198

11.12 Concluding Points 199

References 200

12 Decision-Making and Problem Solving 201

12.1 Introduction 201

12.2 Decisions to be Taken 202

12.3 Critical Thinking 202

12.4 System 1 and System 2 Thinking 203

12.5 Human Barriers to Decision-Making 204

12.6 East versus West 205

12.7 Statistical Thinking 207

12.8 Application to Management Processes 209

12.9 Problem Solving – A3 Method 210

12.10 Creative Problem Solving – TRIZ Method 214

12.11 Concluding Points 216

References 216

13 Improving Product Development Performance 219

13.1 Introduction 219

13.2 What Type of Organisation Are We Dealing With? 219

13.3 Structuring Improvement and Change Initiatives 220

13.4 Diagnosing the Current Situation – Generating Urgency 221

13.5 Organising a Way Forward –The Leadership Role 223

13.6 Developing the Strategy and Vision 223

13.7 Communicating the Vision 224

13.8 Empowering the Organisation 225

13.9 Generating Short-Term Wins 226

13.10 Longer-Term, Permanent Change 227

13.11 Achieving Permanence 228

13.12 Model of Good Practice – Toyota Product Development System 229

13.13 Models of Good Practice – Agile Software Development 230

13.14 Concluding Points 232

References 232

14 Summary, Concluding Points, and Recommendations 235

14.1 The Rationale for This Book 235

14.2 The Engineering Process 236

14.3 Technology Maturity 237

14.4 Aligning Technology with Business Needs 238

14.5 Planning the Work 239

14.6 Creating the Concept 240

14.7 Identifying and Managing Risks 241

14.8 Validation 242

14.9 Engineering Delivery 243

14.10 Funding the Programme 244

14.11 Running Teams and Working with Partners 245

14.12 Critical Thinking 246

14.13 Improving Product Development Performance 248

15 Future Direction 249

15.1 Introduction 249

15.2 Product Development Technologies 250

15.3 New Materials and Product Technologies 251

15.4 Energy, Environmental, and Materials Availability 251

15.5 Manufacturing Systems 252

15.6 Customer Demands 253

15.7 Connected Products 254

15.8 Concluding Points 254

References 255

Final Thoughts 257

Appendix A: TRL and MRL Definitions 259

A.1 Technology Readiness Levels 259

A.2 Manufacturing Readiness Levels 262

Appendix B: Toyota Product Development System 13

Principles and Their Cross-Referencing 265

Glossary of Terms 269

Index 275