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Statistical Process Control for the Food Industry: A Guide for Practitioners and Managers

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Statistical Process Control for the Food Industry: A Guide for Practitioners and Managers

Sarina A. Lim, Jiju Antony

ISBN: 978-1-119-15200-2 February 2019 200 Pages

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Description

A comprehensive treatment for implementing Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the food industry

This book provides managers, engineers, and practitioners with an overview of necessary and relevant tools of Statistical Process Control, a roadmap for their implementation, the importance of engagement and teamwork, SPC leadership, success factors of the readiness and implementation, and some of the key lessons learned from a number of food companies. Illustrated with numerous examples from global real-world case studies, this book demonstrates the power of various SPC tools in a comprehensive manner. The final part of the book highlights the critical challenges encountered while implementing SPC in the food industry globally.

Statistical Process Control for the Food Industry: A Guide for Practitioners and Managers explores the opportunities to deliver customized SPC training programs for local food companies. It offers insightful chapter covering everything from the philosophy and fundamentals of quality control in the food industry all the way up to case studies of SPC application in the food industry on both the quality and safety aspect, making it an excellent "cookbook" for the managers in the food industry to assess and initiating the SPC application in their respective companies.

  • Covers concise and clear guidelines for the application of SPC tools in any food companies' environment
  • Provides appropriate guidelines showing the organizational readiness level before the food companies adopt SPC
  • Explicitly comments on success factors, motivations, and challenges in the food industry
  • Addresses quality and safety issues in the food industry
  • Presents numerous, global, real-world case studies of SPC in the food industry

Statistical Process Control for the Food Industry: A Guide for Practitioners and Managers can be used to train upper middle and senior managers in improving food quality and reducing food waste using SPC as one of the core techniques. It's also an excellent book for graduate students of food engineering, food quality management and/or food technology, and process management.

Preface xiii

1 Quality Management in the Food Industry 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Definition of Quality Control 1

1.3 Quality Control in the Food Industry 2

1.3.1 Quality Control (Raw Material) 3

1.3.2 Quality Control in Production (Processes and End Product) 4

1.3.3 Issues Related to the Quality Control 6

1.3.3.1 Late Adopters 6

1.3.3.2 Difficulties Identifying and Prioritising Hazards (Microbiological and Chemical) 6

1.3.3.3 Lack of Scientific and Quantitative Method to Assess Critical Points 6

1.4 Quality Assurance 7

1.4.1 Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) 7

1.4.2 HACCP (Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point) 8

1.4.3 ISO 9

1.4.4 British Retail Consortium 9

1.5 Quality Management System in the Food Industry 9

1.6 Statistical Thinking 10

1.7 Summary 12

2 Food Industry and its Contribution to the Global Economy 13

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 What Is the Role of Food Industry in the Global Context? 14

2.3 Several Classifications of Food Industry from Several Sources 15

2.4 How is the Food Industry Different from Other Industries? 18

2.5 Customers and Consumers 19

2.6 Government Plan 20

2.7 Summary 20

3 Quality and Safety in the Food Industry 23

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 Food Quality 25

3.2.1 Objective and Subjective Quality 25

3.3 Food Safety 27

3.4 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) 28

3.4.1 Concept 28

3.4.2 HACCP Principles 30

3.4.2.1 Principle 1 30

3.4.2.2 Principle 2 30

3.4.2.3 Principle 3 30

3.4.2.4 Principle 4 30

3.4.2.5 Principle 5 31

3.4.2.6 Principle 6 31

3.4.2.7 Principle 7 31

3.4.3 Hazards 32

3.4.3.1 Physical Contamination 32

3.4.3.2 Chemical Contamination 33

3.4.3.3 Microbiological Contamination 33

3.4.4 Documentation 34

3.4.5 Critical Control Point (CCP) 34

3.4.6 How to Do it? 34

3.4.6.1 Step 1: Develop HACCP Team 34

3.4.6.2 Step 2: Describe and Characterise the Product 35

3.4.6.3 Step 3: Construct the Process Flow Diagram 36

3.4.6.4 Step 4: Identify the Hazards Control 36

3.4.6.5 Step 5: Quantify and Analyse the Hazards 36

3.4.6.6 Step 6: Identify Control Requirements, Targets and Tolerances 37

3.4.6.7 Step 7: Identify CCPs and Assess Existing Controls 37

3.4.6.8 Step 8: Establish a Monitoring System for Each CCP 38

3.5 Good Manufacturing Practice 38

3.5.1 Personnel 39

3.5.2 Plant and Grounds 39

3.5.3 Sanitary Operation 40

3.5.4 Sanitary Facilities and Controls 40

3.5.5 Equipment and Utensils 40

3.5.6 Processes and Controls 40

3.5.7 Raw Materials 40

3.5.8 Warehousing and Distribution 41

3.6 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 42

3.7 Summary 42

4 An Introduction of SPC in the Food Industry: Past, Present and Future 43

4.1 Statistical Process Control: A Brief Overview 43

4.2 Quality Control in the Food Industry: Before SPC 44

4.2.1 Inspection! Inspection! Inspection! 45

4.3 The Evolution of SPC in the Food Industry 48

4.4 The Principle of Current Quality Control 50

4.4.1 Control in Raw Material 50

4.4.2 Control in the Finished Product 51

4.4.3 Control in Processing 51

4.4.4 The Practicality of SPC in the Food Industry 53

4.5 Future of SPC: Organisational Learning Through Statistical Methods Application 55

4.6 Summary 60

5 Tools in SPC 61

5.1 Basic Quality Tools 61

5.2 SPC Tools 61

5.3 Cause-and-Effect Analysis 62

5.3.1 What? 62

5.3.2 Why? 62

5.3.3 When? 62

5.3.4 How? 62

5.3.5 Where? 64

5.4 Pareto Diagram 66

5.4.1 What? 66

5.4.2 Why? 66

5.4.3 When? 67

5.4.4 How? 67

5.4.5 Where? 69

5.5 Process Flowchart 69

5.5.1 What? 69

5.5.2 Why? 69

5.5.3 How? 69

5.5.4 When? 71

5.5.5 Where? 71

5.6 Histogram 71

5.6.1 What? 71

5.6.2 Why? 72

5.6.3 When? 72

5.6.4 How? 72

5.6.5 Where? 73

5.7 Scatter Diagram 73

5.7.1 What? 73

5.7.2 Why? 73

5.7.3 When? 73

5.7.4 How? 74

5.7.5 Where? 74

5.8 Control Chart 74

5.8.1 What? 74

5.8.2 How? 75

5.8.3 Assumptions 75

5.8.4 Why? 75

5.8.4.1 Process/Product Monitoring 75

5.8.4.2 Process Prediction 76

5.8.5 How? 76

5.8.6 Types of Control Charts 77

5.8.7 Variable Control Chart 77

5.8.7.1 Xbar Chart and R Chart or Xbar and S Chart 77

5.8.7.2 ExponentiallyWeighted Moving Average (EWMA) Chart 78

5.8.7.3 Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) Chart 79

5.8.8 Attribute Control Chart 80

5.8.8.1 Proportion Defective Chart (p-Chart) 80

5.8.8.2 Number Defective Chart (np-Chart) 81

5.8.8.3 c-Chart 81

5.8.8.4 U-Chart 82

5.8.9 Run Chart 82

5.8.10 Interpreting Control Chart Signals 83

5.8.11 Rules for Interpreting a Control Chart 83

5.8.12 Where? 84

5.9 Common Mistakes 85

5.10 Summary 86

6 Team Formation, Team Dynamics and Training 87

6.1 The Team 87

6.2 Team Dynamics 88

6.2.1 Team Structure 88

6.2.2 SPC Team Characteristics 91

6.2.3 Team Maturity 93

6.3 Training 94

6.4 Consultant 97

6.5 Follow-Up in-House Training 97

6.6 Measuring Training Effectiveness 98

6.7 Summary 100

7 SPC Readiness Self-Assessment Tool 103

7.1 Ready…? 103

7.2 Concept of Readiness 104

7.3 History of the Readiness Concept 105

7.4 An Approach to Assessing SPC Readiness in the Organisations 107

7.5 Key Components of SPC Readiness 108

7.6 Top Management Support 109

7.6.1 Capable Measurement System 109

7.6.2 Organisational Culture 109

7.6.3 Employee Involvement 110

7.6.4 Urgency to Change 111

7.7 Identifying the Readiness Level 112

7.7.1 How to Use the SPC Readiness Assessment Tool? 112

7.8 Summary 116

8 Critical Aspects in SPC Implementation Process 117

8.1 Introduction 117

8.2 Key Findings from an Empirical Study in the UK Food Manufacturing Industry 117

8.3 CSF of SPC Implementation 120

8.4 Gap Between the Importance of SPC and the Frequency of Actual Practice 122

8.5 Common Barriers to SPC Implementation 124

8.6 Process Performance Measurement 126

8.7 Summary 128

9 Roadmap for the Deployment of SPC 129

9.1 A Cookbook Approach 129

9.2 Phase Awareness: Sell the Program 129

9.2.1 Step 1: Top to Bottom 131

9.2.2 Step 2: SPC Awareness Sessions 133

9.2.3 Step 3: SPC Training 133

9.3 Phase Preparation 135

9.3.1 Step 4: Corporate SPC Vision Create/Creating a SPC Corporate Vision 135

9.3.2 Step 5: SPC Team Establishment 136

9.3.3 Step 6: Develop Strategic Plans for the SPC Implementation 137

9.4 Phase Initiation 138

9.4.1 Step 7: Process Prioritisation 138

9.4.2 Step 8: Process Description 139

9.4.3 Step 9: Process Synthesis 140

9.4.4 Step 10: Measurement System Analysis (MSA) 140

9.4.5 Step 11: Control Chart 141

9.4.6 Step 12: Establish Out-of-Control-Action-Plan (OCAP) 143

9.4.7 Step 13: Process Capability 144

9.4.8 Step 14: Reflection 146

9.5 Phase Institution: Company-Wide Implementation 147

9.5.1 Step 15: Communicate the Success of Initial Project 147

9.5.2 Step 16: Company-Wide Training 147

9.5.3 Step 17: Progress Evaluation Systems 148

9.6 Phase Sustainability 148

9.6.1 Step 18: Maintenance of In-house Expertise 148

9.6.2 Step 19: Towards Learning Organisation 149

9.6.3 Step 20: Reward System 149

9.7 Summary 150

10 Case Studies 151

10.1 Application of the Control Charts in the Industries 151

10.2 Case Study 1 Monitoring Fish Product Packaging (Grigg, Daly, and Stewart, 1998) 152

10.2.1 Problem Statement 152

10.2.2 Processes 152

10.2.3 Sampling 152

10.2.4 Type of Data 153

10.2.5 Construction of the Control Chart 154

10.2.5.1 Determine the Target Level 154

10.2.6 Interpret x − R Chart 154

10.2.7 Conclusion 156

10.3 Case Study 2 Monitoring the Sausage Production 156

10.3.1 Problem Statement 156

10.3.2 Processes 157

10.3.3 Sampling 158

10.3.4 Type of Data 158

10.3.5 Construct Control Chart 159

10.3.6 Interpreting the p-Chart 160

10.3.7 Conclusion 161

10.4 Case Study 3 Controlling Microbiological Hazards on the Food Products 161

10.4.1 Problem Statement 161

10.4.2 Process 162

10.4.3 Sampling 162

10.4.4 Type of Data 162

10.4.5 Construct Control Chart 162

10.4.5.1 Modification of the Data 162

10.4.6 Interpret the Charts 167

10.4.6.1 The Individuals Chart 167

10.4.6.2 The CUSUM Control Chart 167

10.4.7 Conclusion 168

References 169

Index 181