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The Fundamentals of Process Intensification

E-Book

$84.99

The Fundamentals of Process Intensification

Andrzej Stankiewicz, Tom Van Gerven, Georgios Stefanidis

ISBN: 978-3-527-68015-3 June 2019 350 Pages

Description

This advanced textbook covering the fundamentals and industry applications of process intensification (PI) discusses both the theoretical and conceptual basis of the discipline. Since interdisciplinarity is a key feature of PI, the material contained in the book reaches far beyond the classical area of chemical engineering. Developments in other relevant disciplines, such as chemistry, catalysis, energy technology, applied physics, electronics and materials science, are extensively described and discussed, while maintaining a chemical engineering perspective.
Divided into three major parts, the first introduces the PI principles in detail and illustrates them using practical examples. The second part is entirely devoted to fundamental approaches of PI in four domains: spatial, thermodynamic, functional and temporal. The third and final part explores the methodology for applying fundamental PI approaches in practice. As well as detailing technologies, the book focuses on safety, energy and environmental issues, giving guidance on how to incorporate PI in plant design and operation -- safely, efficiently and effectively.

Preface xi

About the Authors xiii

Part I Principles 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Short History of Process Intensification 3

1.2 Definitions and Interpretations of Process Intensification 5

1.3 Fundamentals of Process Intensification – Principles, Approaches, Domains, and Scales 8

References 11

2 The Four Principles 15

2.1 Principle 1 – Toward Perfect Reactions 15

2.2 Principle 2 – What Experience Molecules? 19

2.3 Principle 3 – Driving Forces, Resistances, and Interfaces 21

2.4 Principle 4 – About the Synergies 21

References 23

Part II Domains 25

3 STRUCTURE – PI Approaches in Spatial Domain 27

3.1 Randomness and Order: Why Structure? 27

3.2 Structures Targeting Molecular Events 29

3.2.1 Molecular Imprints 29

3.2.2 Molecular Reactors 33

3.2.3 Shape-Selective Catalysts 34

3.2.4 Semirigid Structures: Liquid Crystals 38

3.3 Structures Targeting Heat Transfer 39

3.3.1 Microstructured Reactors 39

3.3.2 Structured Heat Exchangers 46

3.4 Structures Targeting Mass Transfer 49

3.4.1 Microstructured Separation Systems 49

3.4.2 Structured Internals for Reactions and Separations 55

3.5 Structures Targeting Mixing and Fluid Flow 63

3.5.1 Micromixers 63

3.5.2 Static Mixers 67

3.5.3 Fractal Systems 71

References 73

4 ENERGY – PI Approaches in Thermodynamic Domain 83

4.1 Energy in Chemical Processes – A Broader Picture of the Present and the Future 83

4.2 Electric Fields 85

4.3 Magnetic Fields 90

4.4 Electromagnetic Fields 93

4.4.1 Microwaves 93

4.4.1.1 Liquid-Phase Organic Synthesis Reactions 97

4.4.1.2 Gas-Phase Catalytic Reactions 99

4.4.1.3 Solid–Liquid Extraction 99

4.4.1.4 Adsorbents Regeneration 102

4.4.1.5 Crystallization 103

4.4.1.6 Distillation 103

4.4.1.7 Membrane Processes 104

4.4.2 Plasmas 104

4.4.2.1 Plasma-Assisted Methane Coupling to Acetylene (Huels Process) 106

4.4.2.2 Plasma-Assisted Coal Gasification for Synthesis Gas Production 108

4.4.2.3 Plasma-Assisted CO2 Dissociation 109

4.4.3 Photochemical and Photocatalytic Reactors (Artificial Light) 111

4.4.4 Solar Reactors 118

4.4.5 Induction Heating 126

4.5 Acoustic Fields 129

4.6 Flow Fields 142

4.6.1 Hydrodynamic Cavitation 142

4.6.2 Ejector-based Liquid Jet Reactors 144

4.6.3 Supersonic Flow 147

4.6.4 Impinging-stream Reactors 150

4.7 High-Gravity and High-Shear Fields 152

4.7.1 Rotating Packed Beds 154

4.7.2 Spinning Disc Reactors 158

4.7.3 Rotor–Stator Devices 160

4.7.4 Process Intensification by Solids Moving in Centrifugal Fields 165

4.7.5 High Gravity Fields in Microprocessing Systems 167

References 169

5 SYNERGY – PI Approaches in Functional Domain 197

5.1 Combining Functions 197

5.2 Synergies at Molecular Scale 199

5.2.1 Multifunctional Catalysts 199

5.2.2 Synergistic Use of Alternative Energy Forms 202

5.3 Synergies in Processing Units – Multifunctional Equipment and Integrated Operations 205

5.3.1 Integrating Catalysis and Mixing –The Monolithic Stirrer Concept 205

5.3.2 Integrating Mixing and Heat Exchange – Static Mixer Reactors and Heat Exchangers 205

5.3.3 Heat Exchangers as Chemical Reactors 208

5.3.4 Heat Pumping in Distillation Systems 209

5.3.5 Integrating Reactions and Separation – Reactive Separations 211

5.3.5.1 Reactive Distillation 211

5.3.5.2 Membranes in Chemical Reactors 213

5.3.5.3 Reactive Adsorption 215

5.3.5.4 Reactive Extraction 222

5.3.5.5 Reactive Crystallization 223

5.3.5.6 Reactive Absorption 226

5.3.6 Reactive Comminution 227

5.3.7 Handling Chemical Reactions in Highly Viscous Media – Reactive Extrusion 234

5.3.8 Integrating Separation Techniques – Hybrid Separations 235

5.3.8.1 Extractive Distillation 235

5.3.8.2 Adsorptive Distillation 237

5.3.8.3 Membrane Distillation 238

5.3.8.4 Membrane Crystallization 240

5.3.8.5 Extractive Crystallization 241

5.3.8.6 Membrane Absorption/Stripping 242

5.3.8.7 Membrane Chromatography (Adsorptive Membranes) 245

5.3.8.8 Membrane Extraction 246

References 247

6 TIME – PI Approaches in Temporal Domain 257

6.1 Oscillatory Flow Reactors 258

6.2 Reverse Flow Reactors 262

6.3 Periodic Operation of Trickle Bed Reactors 269

6.4 Cyclic Distillation 271

6.5 Pulse Combustion 275

6.6 Pressure Swing Adsorption 284

6.7 Desorptive Cooling 286

6.8 Variable Volume Operation of Stirred Tank Reactors 288

6.9 Short Contact Time Reactors 290

6.9.1 Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Alkanes 291

6.9.2 Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Cellulose 293

References 296

Part III Fundamentals in Practice – Designing a Sustainable, Intensified Process 299

7 Process Intensification and Sustainable Processing 301

7.1 Introduction 301

7.1.1 Sustainable Earth? 301

7.1.2 Sustainable Processing and the Position of PI 302

7.1.3 Sustainability Assessment Tools Applied to Process Intensification 303

7.2 Ecological Assessment of Intensified Technologies 312

7.2.1 Microreactor Engineering 313

7.2.2 Other Intensified Processes 316

7.3 Process Intensification and Inherent Safety 317

References 322

8 How to Design a Sustainable Intensified Process? 331

8.1 Conceptual Process Intensification Design 331

8.2 Case Study of Bhopal 332

References 339

Index 341