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Automation Challenges of Socio-technical Systems: Paradoxes and Conflicts

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Automation Challenges of Socio-technical Systems: Paradoxes and Conflicts

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$132.99
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Description

The challenges of automating socio-technical systems are strongly linked to the strengths and limitations of technical and human resources, such as perceptual characteristics, cooperative capacities, job-sharing arrangements, modeling of human behavior and the contribution of innovative design approaches.

Automation Challenges of Socio-technical Systems exposes the difficulties in implementing and sustaining symbiosis between humans and machines in both the short and long terms. Furthermore, it presents innovative solutions for achieving such symbiosis, drawing on skills from cognitive sciences, engineering sciences and the social sciences. It is aimed at researchers, academics and engineers in these fields.

Introduction xi
Frédéric VANDERHAEGEN, Choubeila MAAOUI, Mohamed SALLAK and Denis BERDJAG

Part 1. Perceptual Capacities 1

Chapter 1. Synchronization of Stimuli with Heart Rate: a New Challenge to Control Attentional Dissonances 3
Frédéric VANDERHAEGEN, Marion WOLFF and Régis MOLLARD

1.1. Introduction 3

1.2. From human error to dissonance 4

1.3. Cognitive conflict, attention and attentional dissonance 7

1.4. Causes and evaluation of attentional dissonance 9

1.5. Exploratory study of attentional dissonances 11

1.6. Results of the exploratory study 14

1.7. Conclusion 22

1.8. References 24

Chapter 2. System-centered Specification of Physico–physiological Interactions of Sensory Perception 29
Jean-Marc DUPONT, Frédérique MAYER, Fabien BOUFFARON, Romain LIEBER and Gérard MOREL

2.1. Introduction 29

2.2. Situation-system-centered specification of a sensory perception interaction 31

2.2.1. Multidisciplinary knowledge elements in systems engineering 32

2.2.2. Interdisciplinary knowledge elements in systems engineering 38

2.2.3. Specification of a situation system of interest 44

2.3. Physiology-centered specification of a sensory perception interaction 51

2.3.1. Multidisciplinary knowledge elements of a physico–physiological interaction 52

2.3.2. Prescriptive specification of the targeted interaction of auditory perception 57

2.4. System-centered specification of an interaction of sensory perception 61

2.4.1. System-centered architecting specification of the targeted auditory interaction 61

2.4.2. Sensing-centered specification of the targeted auditory interaction 65

2.4.3. System-centered sensing specification of the targeted auditory interaction 67

2.5. Conclusion 72

2.6. References 74

Part 2. Cooperation and Sharing of Tasks 81

Chapter 3. A Framework for Analysis of Shared Authority in Complex Socio-technical Systems 83
Cédric BACH and Sonja BIEDE

3.1. Introduction 83

3.2. From the systematic approach to the systemic approach: a different approach of sharing authority and responsibility 86

3.3. A framework of analysis and design of authority and responsibility 88

3.3.1. Actions in a perspective of authority, responsibility and accountability 89

3.3.2. Levels of authority and responsibility 92

3.3.3. Patterns of actions in relation to authority and responsibility 96

3.3.4. Dynamic relations between the dimensions of the analysis framework 103

3.4. Management of wake turbulence in visual separation: a study of preliminary cases 104

3.4.1. At the nano level 106

3.4.2. At the micro level 106

3.4.3. At the meso level 107

3.4.4. At the macro level 107

3.5. Conclusion 108

3.6. References 108

Chapter 4. The Design of an Interface According to Principles of Transparency 111
Raïssa POKAM MEGUIA, Serge DEBERNARD, Christine CHAUVIN and Sabine LANGLOIS

4.1. Introduction 111

4.2. State of the art 113

4.2.1. Situational awareness 113

4.2.2. Transparency 114

4.3. Design of a transparent HCI for autonomous vehicles 118

4.3.1. Presentation of the approach 118

4.3.2. Definition of the principles of transparency 119

4.3.3. Cognitive work analysis 125

4.4. Experimental protocol 132

4.4.1. Interfaces 132

4.4.2. Hypotheses 134

4.4.3. Participants 134

4.4.4. Equipment 135

4.4.5. Driving scenarios 136

4.4.6. Measured variables 138

4.4.7. Statistical approach 139

4.5. Results and discussions 140

4.5.1. Situational awareness 140

4.5.2. Satisfaction of the participants 143

4.6. Conclusion 145

4.7. Acknowledgments 146

4.8. References 146

Part 3. System Reliability 151

Chapter 5. Exteroceptive Fault-tolerant Control for Autonomous and Safe Driving 153
Mohamed Riad BOUKHARI, Ahmed CHAIBET, Moussa BOUKHNIFER and Sébastien GLASER

5.1. Introduction 153

5.2. Formulation of the problem 157

5.3. Fault-tolerant control architecture 158

5.3.1. Vehicle dynamics modeling 159

5.4. Voting algorithms 162

5.4.1. Maximum likelihood voting (MLV) 162

5.4.2. Weighted averages (WA) 163

5.4.3. History-based weighted average (HBWA) 164

5.5. Simulation results 167

5.6. Conclusion 175

5.7. References 176

Chapter 6. A Graphical Model Based on Performance Shaping Factors for a Better Assessment of Human Reliability 179
Subeer RANGRA, Mohamed SALLAK, Walter SCHÖN and Frédéric VANDERHAEGEN

6.1. Introduction 179

6.2. PRELUDE methodology 186

6.2.1. Theoretical framework 188

6.2.2. The qualitative part 193

6.2.3. The quantitative part 198

6.2.4. Quantification and sensitivity analysis 205

6.3. Case study 209

6.3.1. Step 1, qualitative part: HFE and PSF identification 211

6.3.2. Step 2, quantitative part: expert elicitation, data combination and transformation 213

6.3.3. Step 3, quantification data and results 216

6.4. Conclusion 221

6.5. Acknowledgments 224

6.6. References 224

Part 4. System Modeling and Decision Support 231

Chapter 7. Fuzzy Decision Support Model for the Control and Regulation of Transport Systems 233
Saïd HAYAT and Saïd Moh AHMAED

7.1. Introduction 233

7.2. The problem of decision support systems in urban collective transport 234

7.3. Montbéliard’s transport network 235

7.3.1. Connections 236

7.3.2. The regulation of an urban collective transport network 237

7.4. Fuzzy aid decision-making model for the regulation of public transport 239

7.4.1. Knowledge acquisition 240

7.4.2. Decision criteria for the regulation of public transport traffic 242

7.4.3. Criteria modeling 243

7.4.4. The fuzzification process 244

7.4.5. Generation of decisions 247

7.4.6. Defuzzification 249

7.4.7. Types of decisions 255

7.4.8. Suggestions of regulatory strategies 258

7.4.9. Impact and validation of regulatory strategies 258

7.4.10. Implementation of regulatory strategies 258

7.5. Conclusion 259

7.6. References 259

Chapter 8. The Impact of Human Stability on Human–Machine Systems: the Case of the Rail Transport 261
Denis BERDJAG and Frédéric VANDERHAEGEN

8.1. Introduction 261

8.2. Stability and associated notions 262

8.2.1. Resilience 263

8.2.2. Stability within the technological context 263

8.2.3. Mathematical definition of stability in the sense of Lyapunov 264

8.2.4. Lyapunov’s theorem 265

8.3. Stability in the human context 265

8.3.1. Definition of human stability 265

8.3.2. Definition of the potential of action and reaction 267

8.4. Stabilizability 267

8.5. Stability within the context of HMS 268

8.6. Structure of the HMS in the railway context 269

8.6.1. General structure 269

8.6.2. The supervision module 271

8.6.3. The technological system model 271

8.6.4. The human operator model 272

8.7. Illustrative example 273

8.7.1. Experimental protocol 273

8.7.2. Experimental results 279

8.7.3. Remarks and discussion 280

8.8. Conclusion 281

8.9. References 282

Part 5. Innovative Design 285

Chapter 9. Development of an Intelligent Garment for Crisis Management: Fire Control Application 287
Guillaume TARTARE, Marie-Pierre PACAUX-LEMOINE, Ludovic KOEHL and Xianyi ZENG

9.1. Introduction 287

9.2. Design of an intelligent garment for firefighters 290

9.2.1. Wearable system architecture 290

9.2.2. Choice of electronic components 292

9.2.3. Textile design and sensor integration 292

9.3. Physiological signal processing 294

9.3.1. Extraction of respiratory waveforms 294

9.3.2. Automatic heart rate detection 295

9.3.3. Heart rate variability 297

9.3.4. Analysis of experimental results 297

9.4. Firefighter–robot cooperation, using intelligent clothing 299

9.4.1. Robots 301

9.4.2. Human supervisor interface 302

9.5. Conclusion 303

9.6. References 304

Chapter 10. Active Pedagogy for Innovation in Transport 307
Frédéric VANDERHAEGEN

10.1. Introduction 307

10.2. Analysis of a railway accident and system design 308

10.3. Analysis of use of a cruise control system 311

10.4. Simulation of a collision avoidance system use 314

10.5. Eco-driving assistance 316

10.6. Towards support for the innovative design of transport systems 319

10.7. Conclusion 321

10.8. References 322

Conclusion 327
Frédéric VANDERHAEGEN, Choubeila MAAOUI, Mohamed SALLAK and Denis BERDJAG

List of Authors 329

Index 333