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Introduction to Plastics Engineering




Introduction to Plastics Engineering

Vijay K. Stokes

ISBN: 978-1-119-53657-4 March 2020 1016 Pages

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Comprehensively covers introductory through advanced topics on all aspects of plastics engineering with both academic and industry perspectives.

This book provides a self-contained introduction to plastics engineering. It features a unique, synergistic approach to all aspects of materials use—concepts, mechanics, materials, part design, part fabrication, and assembly—required for converting plastic materials, mainly in the form of small pellets, into useful products. It also integrates the four disparate application areas of polymers—thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, and advanced composites—that normally are treated as separate subjects. 

Introduction to Plastics Engineering has five parts: The first part provides a broad survey of plastics engineering and evolving concepts for plastics use. Part II introduces simple mechanics principles required for understanding the role of mechanics in plastics engineering; addresses models for the behavior of solid, fluid, and viscoelastic materials; and discusses mechanics principles underlying the stiffening of plastics by embedded fibers, and the performance of simple structural elements. Part III introduces polymers and concepts from polymer physics to explain the macro behavior of plastics and to contrast their deformation mechanisms from those of metals, and describes the structure, applications, and mechanical properties of a wide variety of industrially important plastics. Part IV addresses part shaping (part processing) and assembly issues. And Part V covers the system-like behavior of several categories of filled materials.

  • Guides readers through all aspects of plastics engineering—from introduction through advanced topics
  • An ideal reference for students and engineers—those new to plastics or highly experienced with them
  • Provides comprehensive information on a wide variety of plastics and their uses
  • Integrates four different application areas of polymers

Introduction to Plastics Engineering is an ideal text for practicing engineers, researches, and senior and graduate students in chemical, mechanical, plastics, and related disciplines.




Chapter 1 Introductory Survey

1.1 Background

1.2 Synergy between Materials Science and Engineering

1.3 Plastics Engineering as a Process (The Plastics Engineering Process)

1.4 Types of Plastics

1.5 Material Characteristics Determine Part Shapes

1.6 Part Fabrication (Processing)

1.7 Part Performance

1.8 Assembly

1.9 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 2 Evolving Applications of Plastics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Consumer Applications

2.3 Medical Applications

2.4 Automotive Applications

2.5 Infrastructure Applications

2.6 Wind Energy

2.7 Airline Applications

2.8 Oil Extraction

2.9 Mining

2.10 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 3 Introduction to Stress and Deformation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Simple Measures for Load Transfer and Deformation

3.3 Strains as Displacement Gradients

3.4 Coupling between Normal and Shear Stresses

3.5 Coupling between Normal and Shear Strains

3.6 Two-Dimensional Stress

3.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4 Models for Solid Materials

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Simple Models for the Mechanical Behavior of Solids

4.3 Elastic Materials

4.4 Anisotropic Materials

4.5 Thermoelastic Effects

4.6 Plasticity

4.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 5 Simple Structural Elements

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Bending of Beams

5.3 Deflection of Prismatic Beams

5.4 Torsion of Thin-Walled Circular Tubes

5.5 Torsion of Thin Rectangular Bars and Open Sections

5.6 Torsion of Thin-Walled Tubes

5.7 Torsion of Thin-Walled Multicellular Sections

5.8 Introduction to Elastic Stability

5.9 Elastic Stability of an Axially Loaded Column

5.10 Twist-Bend Buckling of a Cantilever

5.11 Stress Concentration

5.12 The Role of Numerical Methods

5.13 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 6 Models for Liquids

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Simple Models for Heat Conduction

6.3 Kinematics of Fluid Flow

6.4 Equations Governing One-Dimensional Fluid Flow

6.5 Simple Models for the Behavior of Liquids

6.6 Simple One-Dimensional Flows

6.7 Polymer Rheology

6.8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7 Linear Viscoelasticity

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Phenomenology of Viscoelasticity

7.3 Linear Viscoelasticity

7.4 Simple Models for Stress Relaxation and Creep

7.5 Response for Constant Strain Rates

7.6 Sinusoidal Shearing

7.7 Isothermal Temperature Effects

7.8 Variable Temperature Histories

7.9 Cooling of a Constrained Bar

7.8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8 Strengthening and Stiffening Mechanisms

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Continuous Fiber Reinforcement

8.3 Discontinuous Fiber Reinforcement

8.4 The Halpin-Tsai Equations

8.5 Reinforcing Materials

8.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 9 Introduction to Polymers

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Thermoplastics

9.3 Molecular Weight Distributions

9.4 Thermosets

9.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 10 Concepts from Polymer Physics

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Chain Conformations

10.3 Amorphous Polymers

10.4 Semicrystalline Polymers

10.5 Liquid Crystal Polymers

10.6 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 11 Structure, Properties, and Applications of Plastics

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Resin Grades

11.3 Additives & Modifiers

11.4 Polyolefins

11.5 Vinyl Polymers

11.6 High-Performance Polymers

11.7 High-Temperature Polymers

11.8 Cyclic Polymers

11.9 Thermoplastic Elastomers

11.10 Historical Notes

11.11 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 12 Blends and Alloys

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Blends

12.3 Historical Notes

12.4 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 13 Thermoset Materials

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Thermosetting Resins

13.3 High-Temperature Thermosets

13.4 Thermosetting Elastomers

13.5 Historical Notes

13.6 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14 Polymer Viscoelasticity

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Phenomenology of Polymer Viscoelasticity

14.3 Time-Temperature Superposition

14.4 Sinusoidal Oscillatory Tests

14.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 15 Mechanical Behavior of Plastics

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Deformation Phenomenology of Polycarbonate

15.3 Tensile Characteristics of PEI

15.4 Deformation Phenomenology of PBT

15.5 Stress-Deformation Behavior of Several Plastics

15.6 Phenomenon of Crazing

15.7 Multiaxial Yield

15.8 Fracture

15.9 Fatigue

15.10 Impact Loading

15.11 Creep

15.12 Stress-Deformation Behavior of Thermoset Elastomers

15.13 Concluding Remarks

15.14 References



Chapter 16 Classification of Part Shaping Methods

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Part Fabrication (Processing) Methods for Thermoplastics

16.3 Evolution of Part Shaping Methods

16.4 Effects of Processing on Part Performance

16.5 Bulk Processing Methods for Thermoplastics

16.6 Part Processing Methods for Thermosets

16.7 Part Processing Methods for Advanced Composites

16.8 Processing Methods for Rubber Parts

16.9 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 17 Injection Molding and its Variants

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Process Elements

17.3 Fountain Flow

17.4 Part Morphology

17.5 Part Design

17.6 Large- Versus Small-Part Molding

17.7 Molding Practice

17.8 Variants of Injection Molding

17.9 Concluding Remarks

17.10 References

Chapter 18 Dimensional Stability and Residual Stresses

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Problem Complexity

18.3 Shrinkage Phenomenology

18.4 Pressure-Temperature Volumetric Data

18.5 Simple Model for How Processing Affects Shrinkage

18.6 Solidification of a Molten Layer

18.7 Viscoelastic Solidification Model

18.8 Warpage Induced by Differential Mold-Surface Temperatures

18.9 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 19 Alternatives to Injection Molding

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Extrusion

19.3 Blow Molding

19.4 Rotational Molding

19.5 Thermoforming

19.6 Expanded Bead & Extruded Foam

19.7 3D Printing

19.8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 20 Fabrication Methods for Thermosets

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Gel Point & Curing

20.3 Compression Molding

20.4 Transfer Molding

20.5 Injection Molding

20.6 Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)

20.7 Open Molding

20.8 Fabrication of Advanced Composites

20.9 Fabrication of Rubber Parts

20.10 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 21 Joining of Plastics

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Classification of Joining Methods

21.3 Mechanical Fastening

21.4 Adhesive Bonding

21.5 Welding

21.6 Thermal Bonding

21.7 Friction Welding

21.8 Electromagnetic Bonding

21.9 Concluding Remarks



Chapter 22 Fiber-Filled Materials: Materials with Microstructure

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Fiber Types

22.3 Processing Issues

22.4 Problem Complexity

22.5 Tensile and Flexural Moduli

22.6 Short-Fiber Filled Systems

22.7 Long-Fiber Filled Systems

22.8 Fiber Orientation

22.9 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 23 Structural Foams: Material with Millistructure

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Material complexity

23.3 Foams as Nohomogeneous Continua

23.4 Effective Bending Modulus for Thin-Walled Prismatic Beams

23.5 Skin-Core Models for Structural Foams

23.6 Stiffness and Strength of Structural Foams

23.7 The Average Density and the Effective Tensile and Flexural Moduli of Foams

23.8 Density and Modulus Variation Correlations

23.9 Flexural Modulus

23.10 Torsion of Nonhomogeneous Bars

23.11 Implications for Mechanical Design

23.12 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 24 Random Glass Mat Composites: Material with Macrostructure

24.1 Introduction

24.2 GMT Processing

24.3 Problem Complexity

24.4 Effective Tensile and Flexural Moduli of Nonhomogeneous Materials

24.5 Insights from Model Materials

24.6 Characterization of the Tensile Modulus

24.7 Characterization of the Tensile Strength

24.8 Statistical Characterization of the Tensile Modulus

24.9 Statistical Properties of Tensile Modulus Data Sets

24.10 Gauge-Length Effects and large-Scale Material Stiffness

24.11 Methodology for Predicting the Stiffness of Parts

24.12 A Statistical Approach to Strength

24.13 Implications for Mechanical Design

24.14 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 25 Advanced Composites: Materials with Well-Defined Reinforcement Architectures

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Resins, Fibers, and Fabrics

25.3 Advanced Composites

25.4 Rubber Based Composites

25.5 Concluding Remarks