This guide is designed to help you create an effective illustration
program that will significantly enhance the presentation of your
published work. It outlines preparation guidelines that will help
ensure the quality and accuracy of each piece and explains the
process artwork goes through at John Wiley and Sons to reach its
final destination in your text. Sample line drawings are given
which clearly illustrate the points in the guide, and a
Checklist for Computer-Prepared Art is provided for your use. Some of the instructions given here are highly detailed
and require knowledge of computer illustration programs such as
Adobe Illustrator. If you have trouble understanding them, call
upon your Subject Editor for assistance or advice.
It is essential that your artwork be submitted simultaneously
with your text and that it be complete. Like the text, artwork
goes through several production stages before it is placed onto
a page, and it travels separately from the text from the very
beginning of the production process. Artwork goes to our Illustration
Department where it is logged in and analyzed by an Illustration
Supervisor. It is then sent to a studio for rendering, correcting,
and sizing, as needed. Photocopies for editing purposes are created
and sent to the copyeditor along with the text. You have an opportunity
to review the artwork when you review the copyedited manuscript.
When all corrections are made and sizes have been established,
the artwork then travels to the typesetter, where it is combined
with the text and appears in proofs for you to review for proper
placement. In order for this process to be successful and for
material to travel concurrently, all artwork in final form must
be on hand when the manuscript is accepted into production. Missing
figures that are submitted late can delay the entire production
process and jeopardize the publication date.
Figure captions (legends) and tables should not be submitted as
artwork or appear on the artwork itself. Figure captions and tables
are part of your text manuscript and should appear separately
at the back of each chapter. Captions should be grouped together
in a list. Both captions and tables will be typeset with your
text and will travel with the text to the typesetter, not with
the artwork. If there is artwork within a table or a caption,
provide the artwork separated from the text so that it can travel
with the rest of the art manuscript.
Illustrations are either line art or halftones (photographs).
These can be submitted as camera-ready art, conventionally drawn
art, tearsheet art, and computer-drawn art. A brief definition
of each category follows. Detailed instructions regarding submission
requirements for each are presented later.
Line art consists entirely of lines that are 100% black on a white
background. Bar and line graphs, pie charts, and schematics are
typically line art. Screens, which are dot patterns, can also appear in line art. Screens can appear at densities of from 10
to 40% of 100% black, but need to be used discretely and appropriately
(see screens for more details).
A halftone is the reproduction of a continuous-tone piece of art,
such as a photograph, slide, or painting, through a screening
process which converts an image into small dots of various sizes,
with equal spacing between their centers. The resulting gray tones
distinguish halftones from line art.
Camera-ready art is ready to be reproduced in your book as you
have submitted it. It will not go to a studio for any additional
work other than size reduction, if needed, or cropping, if a halftone.
Camera-ready art can consist of such items as charts, graphs,
printed forms, photographs, and computer printouts. Two broad
categories of camera-ready art are given below. For your art to
be truly camera ready, you need to follow the stipulations in
this guide carefully.
This category of camera-ready art refers to artwork that is not prepared on the computer but
is drawn with pen and ink by hand. Conditions for its submission
are given later.
Tearsheet art consists of pages taken directly from a previously published
work such as a book or journal. Apart from the obvious need to have
permission for its use, such art cannot be a halftone and needs to be very
clear in its printing so that it can be printed again. Tearsheet art should
be submitted only if no other form of artwork is available for a graphic you
feel is essential.
This grouping consists primarily of line art that is prepared
on the computer using drawing software such as Adobe Illustrator
or CorelDraw. The requirements for its creation are given in detail
below and need to be scrupulously followed.
Always send representative sample figures to your subject editor
for evaluation before you prepare your art program. You may save
yourself a great deal of work by doing so. Our Illustration Department
will provide helpful feedback that most likely will enhance your
Be consistent in the use of line and type. All figures should
be of proportionate size with one another which will give your
work a professional high-quality appearance.
Know what final trim size (full page dimensions), type area
(area where print will appear), and number of text columns your
book will have before you begin creating artwork. Your subject
editor will be able to provide you with this information. You
will then be able to create properly sized art that will fit proportionately
onto your final book page. The following dimensions are typical:
||Corresponding type page(note: 6 picas=1 inch)
|6 x 9
||27 x 44 picas (4-1/2 x 7-1/4 inches)
|6-1/8 x 9-1/4
||28 x 47 picas (4-5/8 x 7-3/4 inches)
|7 x 10 (one column)
||30 x 50 picas (5 x 8-1/4 inches)
|7 x 10 (two column)
||32-1/2 x 50 picas (5-3/8 x 8-1/4 inches); each column is 15-1/2 picas (2-5/8 inches)
|8-1/2 x 11 (two column)
||42 x 56 picas (7 x 9-1/2 inches); each column is 20 picas (3-1/4 inches)
|8 x 10
||38 x 49 picas
|7-1/2 x 9-1/4
||35 x 45 picas
For conventional or camera-ready art submissions, keep in
mind the "final size" that the illustration will be
when published. Wherever possible, figures and type should be
more or less uniform in size. If figures must be reduced, remember
that the type will also be reduced and should be created proportionately
so that it is clearly readable at the smaller size. The ideal
final type size is 8 to 9 points.
For graphs and charts, use tick marks along axes rather than
overall gridlines. Tick marks are far less confusing and have
a cleaner look.
Do not place boxes or borders around illustrations if they
are not part of the illustration. These give your page a boxed
in look and take up too much space.
Be certain that you have cited in text every figure you have
submitted and that you have given an approximate location in the
text where you want the figure to appear. This is usually at the
first mention of the figure.
Submit original artwork separated out from the text. As stated
earlier, artwork will travel on its own path through production
and needs to be submitted apart from the text. You may include
duplicates of the art in the text if you wish.
Be sure to proofread your artwork carefully before submitting
it. As with your text, your care in submitting artwork will help
ensure an accurate and timely publication.
Double check to be certain that each piece of art is clearly
identified. Indicate your name, and then chapter and figure number
beneath the image area or on a gummed label attached to the back
of the figure, if necessary. Do NOT write on the back of the figure.
Writing on the back of an illustration or photograph can make
an impression that is visible on the front and that will affect
the final appearance.
For computer-drawn art, use object-oriented graphics and drawing
applications. These applications allow you to construct illustrations
based on mathematically defined lines and curves. Save them in
the native application file format, .TIF, .PCX, and as Encapsulated
PostScript (EPS) (but with a TIFF preview whenever available).
Encapsulated PostScript files can easily be imported into page
layouts with no damage or loss to the originally submitted files.
The graphics software Wiley prefers is Adobe Illustrator
in its latest version, but the following applications are also
acceptable: Aldus Freehand, Corel Draw, Claris Draw, and Canvas.
We discourage the use of bitmapped art packages (such as MacDraw)
and presentation software (such as PowerPoint, Persuasion, and
Harvard Graphics), as these are not book-software friendly tools.
In most cases, illustrations created in these programs must be
If submitting computer art files, always include a high-quality
hard copy of each figure (minimum 300 dots per inch) along with
the disks or cartridges.
When submitting computer art files, be sure to identify both
the software used, including the version (e.g., Adobe Illustrator
7.0) and the operating system (Macintosh, DOS, Windows, etc.).
Provide a thorough printed directory listing the contents
of each disk or cartridge.
Save each piece at final size. The term "final size"
refers to the actual size that the illustration will be when published.
Larger pieces of art will be reduced to fit within the page width
or height. Keep this in mind when lettering such large pieces,
as the lettering will be reduced as well.
Wiley can accept art on any of the following media: 3.5"
disks, 44, 88, or 200 megabyte SyQuest cartridges, Zip cartridges,
or magneto-optical cartridges of 128 megabytes, 650 megabytes,
or 1.2 gigabytes.
Do not gang multiple illustrations into a single file. Save
each figure individually.
See the discussion on graphics and file-naming conventions in
the Wiley Author Guide, Preparing Your Manuscript, pages
8 - 10. Identify each illustration in its separate file by indicating
chapter and figure number beneath the image area, e.g., 01.01,
01.02, 01.03. If you are having your art prepared by an outside
source, be certain that a consistent style is being followed for
labeling. For example:
Smith / Spectroscopy (author name and short title of book)
Fig. 01-01 (chapter number and figure number)
Double check to see that no identification, tag lines, or figure
captions (legends) are attached to or are part of the artwork.
We would not want an art studio to have to go through the costly
and time-consuming procedure of opening each art file in order
to reposition such labels or delete figure captions
(see captions for more details).
Retain an electronic (disk) copy of all computer art submitted.
Disks and cartridges can easily be damaged or erased in transit.
Under such circumstances, your backup files are critical.
Use only those fonts that are choices in your drawing application's
font menu. Do not artificially apply a style attribute
to your type. These attributes will NOT be able to be reproduced.
Only those typefaces that are within your drawing application's
font menu can be used. Include a listing of all fonts used in
any EPS or TIFF files you create. By following these instructions,
you will ensure that your text in the figures will flow and appear
as you have submitted it. Note the important points that follow:
- Use Adobe Type 1 type fonts:
True Type fonts are not acceptable because they are not compatible with output devices that printers support. Adobe Type 1 fonts are compatible with printing devices and, if used, should cause no difficulties in the printing phase.
Labels: Use clean, simple typefaces for your art labels
such as Trade Gothic, Helvetica, and Times Roman. Final type size
should be 8 to 9 points in height.
Superscripts and subscripts: Make these two points smaller
than the type they're associated with.
Greek letters: Capital letters should be roman; lowercase
letters should be italic.
Multiple-part figure labels (e.g., a, b,
and c): Use lowercase italic letters within Roman parentheses:
(a), (b), (c), etc.
Bullets and brackets: Use standard bullets and 0.25 point
weight for brackets and braces.
Use 0.5 point as a basic line weight for drawing, with heavier
or lighter line weights for emphasis and clarity according to the following scheme (do not use "hairline" rules, as they do not reproduce well):
A 0.35 Graph axes; also used for boxes in flow diagrams
and to show flow or direction lines
B 0.5 Graph border; also used for outlines of machinery
C 1.2 Curves
G 0.2 Tick marks (6 points and 4 points in length); leaders
W 1.0 Wires on schematics and flowlines on flow charts
V 1.7 Vectors
A, B, and G lines use a small arrowhead (0.29); W and C lines
use a large arrowhead
(0.31). Be sure to use arrowhead styles consistently throughout
the art program.
Use screens as appropriate but with discretion. Texture or diagonal
line patterns are also options to screen use. If screens are used,
keep these points in mind:
Black elements that touch any shaded elements must be designated
in your file to overprint.
To ensure the clearest reproduction, screen densities should
be within the 10 - 40% range. Any screen lighter than 10% will
not be effective; a screen darker than 40% will appear too black.
A miter refers to a corner's degree of angularity. The
miter limit specifies when a line switches from a mitered (pointed)
join to a beveled (squared off) join. To comply with Wiley specifications,
use a miter angle of 4. In the Paint Style screen in Adobe Illustrator, the display
provides information about a selected object and lets you modify
its current attributes and apply line weights. This is where you would apply
the proper line weights and set the miter limit at 4.
This image is 15KB
(filled with 20% black)
For all of the above, it is important to be consistent with chosen
The following three samples illustrate all the points discussed
in this Guide for line art submissions. They present the preferred
type and type sizes to be used in creating art, the correct line
weights for curves, axes, and tick marks, the proper use of screens,
and the preferred convention for labeling each piece.
The image is 22KB
The image is 32KB
The image is 46KB
Screen captures (also called screen shots or screen dumps) can
be an important instructional aid in computer books. A screen
capture is literally a picture taken of the image that appears
on a computer screen. It is often used for illustrating such devices
as dialogue boxes or warnings. If you are submitting screen captures
on disk, include the name and version of the screen capture program
you used, as well as the type of hardware.
Please submit a sample art disk to your editor as early as
possible, including on it two or three screen shots, each saved
in a few different file formats. The screens that you select
should be typical of your screen captures and should differ substantially
from one another. Do not crop figures if you do not want the entire
screen capture. Instead, circle what you want on a hard copy printout,
and we will crop it for you.
We will test your files for compatibility with our typesetter's
equipment and select the file format that produces the clearest
image. Additional passes of the test disks may be needed in order
to best match your art with our quality and equipment needs.
The following programs are suggested for your use: Collage for
Windows (version 3.0 and higher); Decipher (Arts & Letters);
HotShot; DoDot for Windows; Hijaak (versions 2.0 and higher);
Clip 'n Save; or Image Prep (versions 3.0 and higher). A .PCX
or .TIFF file format using the highest possible resolution is
preferred. For Windows screen captures, make sure you save the
image in a 256 gray scale (true gray) format rather than in a
color format, as the color format will not reproduce well in black
and white. If the capture program you are using saves the screens
in a different format, make sure the program provides a utility
that lets you convert your screens to a .TIFF file format. Very
large screen capture files can be compressed with a utility like
To ensure sufficient contrast upon reproduction, photographs
should be clear, sharp, and preferably glossy black and white.
White areas should be clean and the overall image should be neither
weak and overexposed nor dark and muddy.
Use original art. Photographs cut from newspapers, journals,
or books (tearsheets) are unacceptable since they have already
been screened once and will therefore reproduce poorly if they
are screened again. Photocopied halftones are also unacceptable.
Try to submit photographs that are 8 x 10 inches or smaller
in size. Larger photographs are cumbersome and more prone to damage.
Note, however, that very small photographs may be difficult to
see and will appear grainy and blurry if they require substantial
enlargement. The ideal size for photos submitted would be near
to or slightly larger than the size they will appear on the printed
Submit photographs without attaching them to a backing material
(i.e., unmounted). We will do the necessary mounting and cropping
(framing the areas of the image that will appear). If you want
a photograph cropped to isolate portions of the image, lightly
mark the area to be cropped in the white border of the photograph
with small tick marks at top and bottom and left and right borders.
If specific cropping is desired but the photograph has no border,
include a photocopy of the photograph with the intended crop marks
indicated for reference.
Unless your photograph is to appear in color, per your agreement
with your subject editor at Wiley, avoid submitting color prints,
transparencies, or slides. Such color prints will have to undergo
conversion to black and white, which is costly and can result
in loss of details in the image.
When identifying photographs, never write on the image area
of the art. Type or clearly write identification numbers on gummed
labels and attach to the back of each figure with tape. Do not
write directly on the back of the photograph. Writing on the back
can make an impression that is visible on the front and that will
affect the final appearance.
Avoid using rub-on type on halftones as it tends to break
up and rub off in handling.
If labels are to be added to a photograph, write the labels
on a photocopy of the figure and include the photocopy with the
Never bend a photograph, attach paper clips to it, or write
on its reverse. The slightest crease or indentation will appear
in the final reproduction. Do not place tape of any kind in the
image area. It will destroy the surface of the photograph if removed,
and will alter the image if allowed to remain.
Mail photographs flat. Protect them with oversized cardboard
backing to prevent bending or crumpling. Carefully protect the
corners. If you are mailing photos, mark the package "Photos
- Do Not Bend."
When preparing conventional art (artwork drawn by hand), do
not use rub-on type as it tends to flake off.
Use technical quality pens with permanent black ink.
If art is mounted, it should be on paper no thicker than 1/32
Always provide original art for best results, not tearsheets.
Do not draw borders or boxes around art if they are not integral
to the figure.
If original art submitted is larger than it will appear at final
size, be sure that any type it may contain is proportionately
large enough to be reduced to the ideal final point size of 8
If you must submit tearsheet art (for line art only),
please note, you must obtain permission for use of tearsheet
art. See the guide Copyrights and Permissions for usage
of previously published material. Tape each tearsheet on
its own standard 8-1/2 x 11 inch piece of typing paper, making
certain that the tape is away from the image area. Clearly identify
the art, giving the author and book title from which it is taken,
and the chapter and figure number it now represents in your book.
If the tearsheet is taken from a previous edition of your book,
clearly indicate the page number and figure number from the previous
edition so that the image can be retrieved from the printer, if
still available. Cross out any area of the page that is not relevant.
If both sides of the tearsheet page contain wanted images, you
will have to supply two copies of the same page or, if not available,
a clear, clean photocopy may be provided for the second