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Encyclopedia of Biostatistics
(6-Volume Set)

Editors-in-Chief: Peter Armitage and Theodore Colton

  • Main Page for this Work
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Sample Articles

  • ISBN: 0-471-97576-1
    Pages: 4898
    Published: February 1998

    Alphabetical Listing of Article Titles


    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


    Aalen-Johansen estimator
    Aalen's additive regression model
    Absolute risk
    Accelerated Failure-Time Models
    Accident proneness
    Adaptive and dynamic methods of treatment assignment
    Adaptive sampling
    Additive hazard models
    Additive model
    Administrative Databases
    Adoption studies
    Aging models
    Age-period-cohort analysis
    Agreement, measurement of
    AIDS and HIV
    Akaike's criteria
    Allocation in stratified sampling
    Alpha-spending functions
    Alternative medicine
    Ambulatory care services
    American Public Health Association
    American Statistical Association
    Analysis of covariance
    Analysis of variance
    Analysis of variance for longitudinal data
    Analytic epidemiology
    Analytic Hierarchy Process
    Ancillary statistics
    Ante-dependence models
    Antithetic variable
    ARMA and ARIMA models
    Armitage sequential designs
    Artificial intelligence
    Aspin-Welch test
    Association, measures of
    Assortative mating
    Asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE)
    Attributable fraction in exposed
    Attributable fraction in population
    Attributable risk
    Autocorrelation function
    Average age at death
    Axioms of probability


    Backward and forward shift operators
    Bacterial counts
    Bacterial growth, division, and mutation
    Balanced incomplete block designs
    BAN estimates
    Bartlett's test
    Baseline adjustment in longitudinal studies
    Battery reduction
    Bayes' Theorem
    Bayes, Thomas
    Bayesian decision models in health care
    Bayesian methods
    Bayesian monitoring of clinical trials
    Bayesian probability models for assessing complex health care phenomena
    Bayesian survival analysis
    Begg and Iglewicz method (of treatment allocation)
    Behrens-Fisher problem
    Berkson, J.
    Berkson's fallacy
    Bernard, C.
    Bernoulli family
    Bertillon Family
    Beta Distribution
    Beta-binomial distribution
    Bias from diagnostic suspicion in case-control studies
    Bias from exposure effects on controls
    Bias from exposure suspicion in case-control studies
    Bias from historical controls
    Bias from loss to follow-up
    Bias from nonresponse
    Bias from stage migration in cancer survival
    Bias from survival in prevalent case-control studies
    Bias in case-control studies
    Bias in cohort studies
    Bias in observational studies
    Bias in routine data
    Bias toward the null
    Bias, nondifferential
    Bias, Overview
    Biased coin method (of treatment allocation)
    Biased sampling of cohorts
    Binary data
    Binomial Confidence Intervals when no Events are observed
    Binomial distribution
    Bioavailability and bioequivalence
    Biological assay, overview
    Biological standardization
    Biometrical Journal (J)
    Biometrics (J)
    Biometrika (J)
    Biostatistics, an overview
    Birth and death processes
    Birth cohort studies
    Biserial correlation
    Bivariate distributions
    Bivariate normal distribution
    Blinding or masking
    Bliss, Chester
    Block randomization
    Blood groups
    Bonferroni inequalities and intervals
    Bonferroni, C
    Bootstrap method
    Bootstrapping in survival analysis
    Bortkiewicz, Ladislaus, von
    Bradley-Terry model
    Branching processes
    Breslow-Day test
    Bross sequential designs
    Brownian Motion and Diffusion Processes
    Brownlee, John
    BSE and nvCJD
    Burden of disease
    Byar, D.P.


    Call-backs and mail-backs in sample surveys
    Candidate gene
    Canner's principle for covariate adjustment
    Canonical correlation
    Carcinogenicity experiments
    Cardiology and cardiovascular disease
    Case fatality
    Case mix
    Case mix definition by diagnosis related groups
    Case series, case reports
    Case-cohort study
    Case-control study
    Case-control study, hospital-based
    Case-control study, nested
    Case-control study, population based
    Case-control study, prevalent
    Case-control study, sequential
    Case-control study, survival-based
    Case-control study, two-phase
    Catchment area
    Categorical agreement, modeling of
    Categorical data analysis
    Categorizing continuous variables
    Cauchy Distribution
    Causal direction, determination
    Causality, Hill's criteria
    Cause of death, automatic coding
    Cause of death, underlying and multiple
    Cell counts
    Cell Cycle models
    Censored data
    Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
    Central limit theory
    Centroid Method
    Chain Binomial Model
    Chalmers, T.C.
    Change-point problem
    Chaos theory
    Characteristic function
    Chi-square distribution
    Chi-square tests
    Chi-square, partition of
    Chronic disease models
    Circadian variation
    Circular data models
    Classification, overview
    Classifications of medical and surgical procedures
    Clinical Epidemiology
    Clinical equipose
    Clinical Signals, Analysis
    Clinical significance versus statistical significance
    Clinical trials audit and quality control
    Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Agents
    Clinical trials protocols
    Clinical trials, early cancer and heart disease
    Clinical trials, overview
    Cluster Analysis of Subjects, Hierarchical Methods
    Cluster Analysis of Subjects, Nonhierarchical Methods
    Cluster analysis, variables
    Cluster sampling
    Cluster Sampling, Optimal Allocation
    Cluster score
    Coarsening at random
    Cochran, William Gemmell
    Cochrane Collaboration
    Cochrane, Archibald (Archie) Leman
    Coherence between time series
    Cohort study
    Cohort study, historical
    Commingling analysis
    Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies (COPSS)
    Communicable diseases
    Community intervention trials
    Community medicine
    Compartment models
    Competing risks
    Complete Linkage Clustering
    Compliance assessment in clinical trials
    Composite estimators
    Computer algebra
    Computer architecture
    Computer languages
    Computer-aided diagnosis
    Computer-assisted Interviewing
    Computer-intensive methods
    Computers, overview
    Conception, models for
    Conditional probability
    Conditionality principle
    Confidence Intervals and Sets
    Confidentiality and computers
    Confidentiality in epidemiology
    Confirmatory factor analysis
    Confounder summary score
    Confounding risk ratio
    Consistent estimator
    Contagious distributions
    Contingency table
    Controlled Clinical Trials (J)
    Convergence in distribution and in probability
    Cooperative cancer trials
    Cooperative heart disease trials
    Cornfield, J.
    Cornfield's inequality
    Correlated binary data
    Correlational study
    Correspondence analysis
    Cosine of angle between two vectors
    Costs in clinical decision making
    Counting process methods in survival analysis
    Covariance matrix
    Covariate imbalance, adjustment for
    Cox regression model
    Cox, Gertrude
    Cox's test of randomness
    Cramer-Rao inequality
    Critical region
    Cronbach's alpha
    Crossover designs
    Cross-sectional study
    Crude risk
    Cumulative hazard
    Cumulative incidence
    Cumulative incidence rate
    Cumulative incidence ratio
    Cumulative risk
    Cure models
    Cutler, Sid


    Data access, national and international
    Data and safety monitoring
    Data and safety monitoring boards
    Data archives
    Data management and coordination
    Data quality in vital and health statistics
    Database systems
    De Finetti
    De Moivre, Abraham
    Death certification
    Death indexes
    Decision analysis
    Decision analysis in diagnosis and treatment choice
    Decision theory
    Degrees of freedom
    Delayed entry
    Delta method
    DeMoivre, A.
    Denominator difficulties
    Density estimation
    Density sampling
    Descriptive epidemiology
    Design effects
    Detection bias
    Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs)
    Diagnostic delay
    Diagnostic test accuracy
    Diagnostic test evaluation without a gold standard
    Diagnostic tests, evaluation of
    Diagnostics in longitudinal data analysis
    Differential error
    Diffusion processes
    Diggle-Kenward model for dropouts
    Dilution method for bacterial density estimation
    Direct and indirect effects
    Discrete Survival-Time models
    Discriminant analysis, linear
    Disease registers
    Disease screening, models of
    Disease-marker association
    Distance sampling
    Distribution-free methods for longitudinal data
    DNA sequences
    Dorn, H.
    Dose-response in pharmacoepidemiology
    Dose-response models in risk analysis
    Double sampling
    Double-blind trials
    Drug approval and regulation
    Drug interactions
    Drug regulation
    Drug utilization patterns
    Dummy variables
    Duncan's multiple range test
    Duration Dependence
    Durbin-Watson test
    Dynamic allocation index
    Dynamic population


    ECG analysis
    Ecologic correlation
    Ecologic fallacy
    Ecologic study
    Econometric applications in Health Services
    Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro
    Effect modification
    Efficacy vs. effectiveness evaluation
    Efficiency and efficient estimators
    Eligibility and exclusion criteria
    Eligibility restriction
    Elston-Stewart algorithm
    E-M algorithm
    Embryo/uterus models
    Empirical Bayes
    Environmental epidemiology
    Environmental health
    Environmental risk study
    Epidemic curve
    Epidemic models, deterministic
    Epidemic models, spatial
    Epidemic models, stochastic
    Epidemic thresholds
    Epidemiology as legal evidence
    Episodes of care
    Equivalence trials
    Erlang process
    Errors in variables
    Estimating functions
    Estimation, interval
    Ethics of randomized trials
    Ethnic groups
    European Federation of Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry (EFPSI)
    European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)
    Event history analysis
    Event-related potential
    Evidence-based medicine
    Exact Inference for Categorical Data
    Excess mortality
    Excess relative risk
    Excess risk
    Expected number of deaths
    Experimental Design
    Experimental study
    Experiment-wise error rate
    Explained variation measures in survival analysis
    Explanatory variables
    Exploratory data analysis
    Exponential Distribution
    Exponential family
    Exposure effect
    Exposure measurement
    Exposure standards
    Extrapolation, low dose
    Extrapolation, species
    Extreme values


    F distributions
    Factor analysis, overview
    Factor analysis, second order
    Factor loading matrix
    Factor scores
    Factorial designs in clinical trials
    Factorial experiments
    False negative rate
    False positive rate
    Familial correlations
    Farr, William
    Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
    Fibonacci scheme for dose escalation
    Fiducial Probability
    Fieller's theorem
    Finite population correction
    Fisher lectures
    Fisher, Ronald Aylmer
    Fisher's exact test
    Fixed effects
    Fixed effects meta-analysis
    Fixed population
    Fix-Neyman process
    Floating point arithmetic
    Follow up
    Follow-up, active vs. passive
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    Food frequency surveys
    Force of Mortality
    Forensic medicine
    Foundations of probability
    Fractional factorial designs
    Fractional factorial trials
    Framingham Study
    Fraud, detection of
    Frequency distribution
    Frequency matching
    Frontiers of biostatistics


    Gail-Simon test for qualitative interactions
    Galton, Francis
    Galton-Watson process
    Gamma distribution
    Gardner, Martin John
    Gauss, Carl Friedrich
    Gavarret, L-D-J
    Gehan's design for Phase II trials
    Gene frequency estimation
    Gene-environment interaction
    General and family practice
    General linear model
    General Practice
    Generalized additive model
    Generalized estimating equations
    Generalized linear model
    Generalized linear models for longitudinal data
    Generalized maximum likelihood
    Generating functions
    Genetic correlations and covariances
    Genetic counseling
    Genetic distance
    Genetic epidemiology
    Genetic liability model
    Genetic Map functions
    Genetic markers
    Genetic transition probabilities
    Genetic transmission probabilities
    Genito-urinary medicine
    Geographic patterns of disease
    Geographical analysis
    Geometric distribution
    Geometry in statistics
    Gerontology and geriatric medicine
    Gestational age
    Gini, Corrado
    Gold standard test
    Goodman-Kruskal measures of association
    Goodness of fit
    Goodness of Fit in Survival Analysis
    Gosset, William Sealy
    Graeco-Latin square designs
    Gramian Matrix
    Gram-Schmidt process
    Graphical displays
    Graphical presentation of longitudinal data
    Graunt, J.
    Greenberg, B.G.
    Greenwood, Major
    Grenander Estimators
    Group practice
    Group sequential designs
    Grouped data
    Grouped Survival Times
    Group-randomization designs
    Growth and development
    Growth models
    Guttman scale
    Guy, William Augustus


    Half-normal distribution
    Halley, E.
    Halperin, M.
    Haplotype analysis
    Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    Hawkins, F. Bisset
    Hawthorne effect
    Haybittle-Peto boundaries
    Hazard Plotting
    Hazard plotting and nonparametric repeated-events analysis
    Hazard plotting: the Nelson approach
    Hazard rate
    Hazard ratio estimator
    Health care financing
    Health care personnel
    Health care utilization and behavior, models of
    Health care utilization, data
    Health care utilization, data analysis
    Health economics
    Health Services Data sources in Canada
    Health Services Data sources in Europe
    Health services data sources in the US
    Health Services Organization in the US
    Health services research, overview
    Health services, organization of
    Health statistics and information systems
    Health status and quality of life
    Health status and quality of life research
    Health status instruments, measurement properties of
    Health status measurement
    Health workforce modeling
    Hidden Markov models
    Hierarchical methods in strategic planning
    Hierarchical models
    Hierarchical Models in Health Service Research
    Hill, A. Bradford
    Hill's criteria for causality
    Historical controls
    Historical controls in survival analysis
    History of biostatistics
    History of clinical trials
    History of health statistics
    History of statistics
    HLA system
    Hogben, Lancelot Thomas
    Horizon models
    Horvitz-Thompson estimator
    Hospital and health systems
    Hospital Market Area
    Hotelling, Harold
    Hotelling's T-square
    Human genetics, overview
    Hypergeometric distribution
    Hyperplane in factor analysis
    Hypothesis testing


    Identity coefficients
    Image Analysis and Tomography
    Incidence density
    Incidence density difference
    Incidence density ratio
    Incidence rate
    Incidence ratio
    Incidence-prevalence relationships
    Incident case
    Incomplete block designs
    Incomplete follow-up
    Incubation period of infectious diseases
    Independence of a set of variables, tests of
    Indian Statistical Institute
    Infant and prenatal mortality
    Infectious disease models
    Infectivity titration
    Influence function in survival analysis
    Information Matrix
    Informed consent
    Institut National de la Sante de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM)
    Instrumental Variable
    Integrated health systems
    Intention to Treat Analysis
    Interaction in factorial experiments
    Interaction model
    Interim analysis of censored data
    Interlaboratory study
    International Agency for Research Against Cancer (IARC)
    International Biometric Society
    International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
    International Society for Clinical Biostatistics
    International Statistical Institute
    International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) trials
    Interpenetrating samples
    Interval censoring
    Intervention analysis in time series
    Interviewer bias
    Interviewing techniques
    Inverse Gaussian distribution
    Irwin, Joseph Oscar
    Isotonic inference
    Isotonic regression
    Iterative proportional fitting


    Jackknife method
    James-Stein estimator
    Jeffreys, H.
    Job-exposure matrices
    Joint action
    Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (J)
    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (J)
    Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
    Journal of the American Statistical Association: Its Organization and Purpose
    Journal of the American Statistical Association: Its Writings
    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (J)
    J-shaped distribution


    Kalman filtering and smoothing
    Kaplan-Meier estimator
    Kappa and its dependence on marginal rates
    Kendall, Maurice George
    Kolmogorov, A.N.
    Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Cramer-von Mises tests in survival analysis
    Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
    Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in survival analysis
    Kullback-Leibler information


    Laboratory quality control
    Lagged dependent variables
    Lambda criterion, Wilks'
    Laplace, Pierre-Simon
    Large-sample theory
    Latent class analysis
    Latent period
    Latin square designs
    Lattice designs
    Law of large numbers
    Lawley-Hotelling trace
    Least squares
    Lehmann alternatives
    Length bias
    Length-biased sampling
    Leukemia clusters
    Level of a test
    Lexis Diagram
    Life expectancy
    Life table
    Likelihood ratio
    Likelihood ratio tests
    Likelihood ratio with diagnostic tests
    Likert Scale
    Limit theorems
    Linder, Forrest E.
    Lindley's paradox
    Linear programming
    Linear rank tests in survival analysis
    Linear regression, simple
    Linearization methods of variance estimation
    Linkage analysis, model based
    Linkage analysis, model free
    Linkage disequilibrium
    Locally most powerful tests
    Location-Scale Family
    Logistic distribution
    Logistic regression
    Logistic regression, conditional
    Loglinear model
    Lognormal distribution
    Logrank test
    Longitudinal data analysis, Overview
    Long-term care
    Loss function
    Loss to follow up bias
    Louis, P. C. A.


    Magic square designs
    Mahalanobis distance
    Mahalanobis, P.C.
    Mainland, D.
    Mallows' Cp statistic
    Malthus, T.R.
    Managed care
    Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon statistic
    Mantel-Haenszel methods
    Mapping disease patterns
    Marginal likelihood
    Marginal models
    Marginal models for multivariate survival data
    Marginal probability
    Marker processes
    Markov chain Monte Carlo
    Markov chains
    Markov processes
    Martini, P.
    Matched analysis
    Matched pairs with categorical data
    Maternal mortality
    Mathematical biology, overview
    Matrix algebra
    Matrix computations
    Maximum likelihood
    Maximum tolerated dose
    Maxwell, Albert Ernest
    McKendrick, Anderson Gray
    McNemar test
    Mean deviation
    Mean Square Error
    Measurement error in epidemiologic studies
    Measurement error in survival analysis
    Measurement scale
    Media and statistics
    Median effective dose
    Median survival time
    Medical databases for treatment evaluation
    Medical ethics and statistics
    Medical informatics
    Medical journals and use of statistics
    Medical Research Council (MRC)
    Medical Research Council Streptomycin trial
    Medical research, influence of statistics
    Medicines Control Agency (MCA)
    Medico-legal cases and statistics
    Mendel's Laws
    Mental health services
    Merrell, Margaret
    Meta-analysis of clinical trials
    Meta-analysis of diagnostic tests
    Meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies
    Metastasis models
    Method of moments
    Michaelis-Menten equation
    Microbiology and virology
    Midwifery, Obstetrics and Neonatology
    Migrant studies
    Migration processes
    Minimax Theory
    Minimization method (of treatment allocation)
    Minimum therapeutically effective dose
    Minimum variance unbiased (MVU) estimator
    Misclassification error
    Missing data estimation, "hot deck" and "cold deck"
    Missing data in clinical trials
    Missing data in epidemiologic studies
    Missing data, estimation of
    Mixed effects models for longitudinal data
    Mixed model in segregation analysis
    Model checking
    Model fitting, overview
    Model, choice of
    Modeling strategies
    Molecular epidemiology
    Moment generating function
    Monte Carlo methods
    Moran, Patrick Alfred Pierce
    Morbidity and mortality, changing patterns in the 20th century
    Mortality, international comparisons
    Most powerful test
    Moving average
    Muench, H.
    Multicenter trials
    Multidimensional scaling
    Multilevel models
    Multinomial distribution
    Multiple Comparisons
    Multiple diagnostic tests
    Multiple endpoints, multivariate global tests
    Multiple endpoints, P level procedures
    Multiple imputation methods
    Multiple linear regression
    Multiple outcomes
    Multiple time series
    Multiplicative model
    Multiplicity in clinical trials
    Multipoint linkage analysis
    Multistage carcinogenesis models
    Multistage sampling
    Multivariate analysis of variance
    Multivariate analysis, Bayesian
    Multivariate analysis, overview
    Multivariate Bartlett test
    Multivariate classification rules: calibration and discrimination
    Multivariate distributions, overview
    Multivariate failure time data
    Multivariate Graphics
    Multivariate median and rank sum tests
    Multivariate methods for binary longitudinal data
    Multivariate multiple comparison tests of means
    Multivariate multiple regression
    Multivariate normal distribution
    Multivariate normality, tests of
    Multivariate outliers
    Multivariate survival analysis
    Multivariate t distribution
    Multivariate Weibull distribution
    Mutagenicity study


    N of 1 trials
    National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
    National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    Natural history study of prognosis
    Negative binomial distribution
    Nelson-Aalen estimator
    Network sampling
    Neural network
    Neyman, Jerzy
    Neyman-Pearson lemma
    Nightingale, Florence
    Noise and white noise
    Nominal data
    Noncentral t distribution
    Noncompliance, adjustment for
    Non-differential bias
    Nondifferential error
    Non-differential error
    Non-Fourier waveforms
    Nonignorable drop-out in Longitudinal studies
    Nonlinear growth curve
    Nonlinear regression
    Nonlinear time series analysis
    Non-nested models
    Non-normality, test for
    Nonparametric maximum likelihood
    Nonparametric methods
    Nonparametric regression
    Non-randomized trials
    Nonresponse bias
    Nonresponse in sample surveys
    Nonsampling errors
    Normal clinical values, design of a study
    Normal clinical values, reference intervals for
    Normal distribution
    Normal scores
    Normal values of biological characteristics
    Normality, tests of
    Nuisance parameter
    Null hypothesis
    Number needed to treat (NNT)
    Numerical analysis
    Numerical integration
    Numerical taxonomy
    Nutritional Epidemiology
    Nutritional Exposure Measures
    Nyquist frequency


    O, o notation
    Oblimin rotation
    Oblique rotation
    O'Brien and Fleming boundaries
    Observational study
    Observer reliability and agreement
    Obstetrics and neonatology
    Occupational epidemiology
    Occupational health and medicine
    Occupational mortality
    Odds ratio
    Office for National Statistics (ONS) (formerly OPCS)
    One-sided test
    Op, op notation
    Operations research
    Optimal allocation in cluster sampling
    Optimal design
    Optimization and nonlinear equations
    Optres rotation
    Order statistics
    Ordered alternatives
    Ordered categorical data
    Orders of Magnitude
    Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process
    Orthoblique rotation
    Orthogonal designs
    Orthogonal rotation
    Outcome measures in clinical trials
    Outcomes research


    P value
    Paired comparisons
    Paired t test
    Pairwise independence
    Panel Study
    Parallel group designs
    Parallel-line assay
    Parametric models in survival analysis
    Pareto distribution
    Partial factorial designs
    Partial likelihood
    Partially balanced incomplete block design
    Particle-size distributions
    Partner study
    Pascal, Blaise
    Paternity testing
    Path analysis
    Path analysis in genetics
    Pattern recognition
    Pearl, R.
    Pearson Distributions
    Pearson, Egon Sharpe
    Pearson, Karl
    Pedigrees, sequential sampling
    Peirce, C.S.
    Penalized maximum likelihood
    Person-years at risk
    Person-years of life lost
    Petty, W.
    Pharmaceutical industry, statisticians in
    Pharmaceutical industry, statistics in
    Pharmacoepidemiology, adverse and beneficial effects
    Pharmacoepidemiology, overview
    Pharmacoepidemiology, study designs
    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
    Pharmacology and clinical pharmacology
    Phase I trials
    Phase II trials
    Phase-type distributions in survival analysis
    Physical medicine, physical therapy and rehabilitation
    Pillai's trace test
    Pinel, P.
    Pitman efficiency
    Play-the-winner rule (of treatment allocation)
    Pocock and Simon method (of treatment allocation)
    Pocock boundaries
    Point Processes
    Poisson distribution
    Poisson process
    Poisson regression
    Poisson regression in epidemiology
    Poisson, S.D.
    Polya process
    Polya's urn model
    Polygenic inheritance
    Polymorphism information content
    Polynomial approximation
    Polynomial regression
    Polytomous data
    Popper, Karl R.
    Population average model
    Population genetics
    Population growth models
    Population-based study
    Post Stratification in Survey Sampling
    Postmarketing surveillance of new drugs and assessment of risk
    Poststratification in Survey Sampling
    Power transformations
    Preclinical treatment evaluation
    Predictive modeling of prognosis
    Predictive values
    Prevalence of disease, estimation from screening data
    Prevalence rate or ratio
    Prevalence-incidence bias
    Prevalent case
    Preventable fraction
    Prevention trials
    Preventive medicine
    Priestley's test for harmonic components
    Primary axes
    Primary care
    Primary factors
    Primary outcome
    Principal components analysis
    Principal coordinates Analysis
    Principal co-ordinates analysis, Gower's method
    Prior distribution
    Probabilistic matching
    Probability sampling
    Probability Theory
    Procrustes rotation
    Professional statistical practices, principles
    Profile likelihood
    Profiling providers of medical care
    Prognostic factors in survival
    Program evaluation
    Projection pursuit
    Projections, AIDS, Cancer, Smoking
    Promax rotation
    Propensity score
    Proportional hazards, Overview
    Proportional mortality ratio (PMR)
    Proportional mortality study
    Proportional-odds model
    Proportional-odds Regression
    Proprietary biostatistical firms
    Prospective study
    Pseudo-random number generator
    Psychometrics, overview
    Public health and preventive services
    Public understanding of statistics
    Publication bias
    Pulmonary medicine


    Q and R mode analysis
    Quality of care
    Quality of Life and Health Status
    Quality of life and survival analysis
    Quality-adjusted life years
    Quantal response models
    Quantile regression
    Quartimax rotation
    Quasi-experimental design
    Quasi-experimental designs
    Questionnaire design
    Quetelet, A.
    Queuing Processes
    Quota, representative, and other methods of purposive sampling


    R- and Q-Analysis
    Radon-Nikodym theorem
    Random coefficient repeated measures model
    Random digit dialing sampling for case-control studies
    Random effects
    Random effects meta-analysis
    Random effects models for longitudinal data
    Random error
    Random mixing
    Random Sample
    Random variable
    Randomization tests
    Randomized complete blocks designs
    Randomized consent
    Randomized response techniques
    Randomized treatment assignment
    Randomness, tests of
    Rank correlation
    Rank regression
    Rank transformation
    Rao-Blackwell theorem
    Rasch models
    Rasch, Georg
    Ratio and Regression Estimates
    Real time approach in survival analysis
    Recall bias
    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves
    Record linkage
    Recursive partitioning for clinical decision making
    Reduced Rank Regression
    Reed-Frost model
    Reference vectors
    Regression to the mean
    Regressive models
    Regulation and controls in health services
    Relative hazard
    Relative odds
    Relative risk
    Relative risk modeling
    Reliability study
    Remington, R.
    Renewal processes
    Repeated events
    Repeated measure design
    Repeated significance testing
    Reproduction number
    Resampling procedures for sample surveys
    Residual confounding
    Residuals for survival analysis
    Response effects in sample surveys
    Response surface methodology
    Response variable
    Restricted maximum likelihood
    Retrospective study
    Ridge regression
    Risk adjustment
    Risk assessment
    Risk assessment for environmental chemicals
    Risk assessment in clinical decision making
    Risk set
    Robust methods in time series analysis
    Robust regression
    Robustness of multivariate techniques
    Rotation of axes
    Royal Statistical Society
    Roy's maximum root criteria
    Rule of Three-binomial confidence intervals when no responses are observed


    Salk vaccine
    Sample size determination
    Sample size determination for clinical trials
    Sample size determination in survival analysis
    Sample Surveys
    Sampling distributions
    Sampling frames
    Sampling in developing countries
    Sampling with and without replacement
    Sampling with probability proportional to size
    Savage, Leonard Jimmie
    Scaling methods, overview
    Scan statistics for disease surveillance
    Scheduling Health Service Resources
    Schneiderman, Marvin Arthur
    Scientific method and statistics
    Scree test
    Screening benefit, evaluation of
    Screening overview
    Screening trials
    Screening, Models of
    Seasonal time series
    Secondary attack rate
    Secondary outcomes
    Segregation analysis, classical
    Segregation analysis, complex
    Segregation ratios
    Selection bias
    Semi-Markov Processes
    Semiparametric regression
    Sensitivity analysis
    Sensitivity analysis of epidemic models
    Separate families of hypotheses
    Sequential analysis
    Serial correlation
    Serial dilution assay
    Serial tests of randomness
    Serial-sacrifice experiments
    Sheppard's corrections
    Shrinkage Estimation
    Sign tests
    Signed-rank statistics
    Similarity, dissimilarity, and distance measure
    Simple random sampling
    Simple randomization
    Simple structure
    Simplex Models
    Simpson's paradox
    Simultaneous confidence intervals
    Simultaneous inference
    Single linkage clustering
    Single-blind trials
    Slope-ratio assay
    Slutzky-Yule effect
    Small area analysis
    Small area estimation
    Small area variation analysis
    Smoking and health
    Smoothing hazard rates
    Snedecor, G.W.
    Snowball sampling
    Snyder's ratios
    Social classifications
    Social Sciences
    Software for analysis of sample surveys
    Software for analysis of sample surveys, misuse of standard packages
    Software for genetic epidemiology
    Software for Sample Survey Data
    Software for Sample Survey Data, misuse of standard packages
    Software reliability
    Software, biostatistical
    Sojourn time in screening
    Soper, Herbert Edward
    Source population
    Spearman rank correlation
    Spectral analysis
    Sphericity test
    Spiegelman, M.
    Spline function
    Split plot designs
    S-PLUS and S
    Sports medicine
    Square contingency table
    Staggered entry
    Standard deviation
    Standard error
    Standard gamble technique
    Standard normal deviate
    Standardization methods
    Standardized coefficients
    Statistical consulting
    Statistical Dependence and Independence
    Statistical forensics
    Statistical independence
    Statistical mapStatistical Methods in Medical Research (J)
    Statistical review for medical journals
    Statistical review for medical journals, guidelines for authors
    Statistical review for medical journals, journal's perspective
    Statistician as expert witness
    Statisticians in drug regulation
    Statistics in Medicine (J)
    Statistics, an overview Adverse selection
    Statistics, papers of influence
    Stimulus-response studies
    Stochastic approximation
    Stochastic curtailment
    Stochastic Limit and Order Relations
    Stochastic processes
    Stocks, Percy
    Stratified randomization
    Stratified sampling
    Stratified Sampling, Allocation in
    Structural and sampling zeros
    Structural equation models
    Structural nested failure time models
    Structural time series models
    Studentized range
    Student's t distribution
    Student's t Statistics
    Study population
    Subgroup analysis in clinical trials
    Subjective probability
    Sufficient statistic
    Summary measures analysis of longitudinal data
    Superpopulation models in survey sampling
    Surrogate endpoints
    Surveillance in longitudinal studies
    Surveillance of diseases
    Surveys, health, and morbidity
    Survival analysis software
    Survival analysis, Overview
    Survival bias in prevalent case-control studies
    Survival distributions and their characteristics
    Synergy of exposure effects
    Systematic error
    Systematic sampling methods


    Target population
    Teaching medical statistics to statisticians
    Teaching statistics to medical students
    Teaching statistics to physicians
    Technology assessment in health services
    Telephone sampling
    Teratology studies
    Threshold analysis
    Tied Survival times
    Time lag effect
    Time origin, choice of
    Time series
    Time series regression
    Time tradeoff technique
    Time-by-time analysis of longitudinal data
    Time-dependent covariate
    Time-dependent spectra
    Time-varying Treatment Effect
    Tolerance interval
    Tolerance region
    Total time on test
    Transfer function models
    Transition models for longitudinal data
    Travel medicine
    Treatment-covariate interaction
    Tree-structured statistical methods
    Trend test for counts and proportions
    Trigonometric regression
    Trimming and Winsorization
    Triple-blind trials
    Tropical medicineAxes in multivariate analysis
    Truncated survival times
    Tumor Growth
    Tumor Incidence Experiments
    Turnbull estimator
    Twin analysis
    Twin concordance
    Twin registers
    Two-by-two table
    Two-mutation carcinogenesis model
    Two-phase case-control study
    Two-stage least squares regression
    Two-stage monitoring designs
    Type-specific covariates in survival analysis


    Uncertainty principleUniform distribution
    Uniform random numbers
    Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC)
    Union-intersection principle
    Unit of analysis Admixture in human populations
    Univariate response
    University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP)
    Up-and-down method Alert threshold construction
    U-shaped distribution
    Utility in health studies


    Vaccine studies
    Validation study
    Validity and generalizability in epidemiologic studiesVariable selection
    Variance components Alternative hypothesis
    Variance estimation in sample surveys
    Varimax rotation
    Viral population growth models
    Vital statistics, overview


    Wald, A.
    Wald's identity
    Wavelet Analysis
    Weibull Distribution Actuarial methods
    Weighted distributions
    Wilcoxon signed-rank test
    Wilcoxon, Frank
    Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test
    Wilcoxon-type scale tests
    Willingness to pay in cost-benefit analysis Window estimate
    Wishart distribution
    Worcester, J.
    World Health Organization (WHO): biostatistics and epidemiology
    World Health Organization (WHO): global health situation


    Yates, F.
    Yates's algorithm
    Yates's continuity correction
    Youden squares and row-column designs
    Yule process
    Yule, George Udny Animal screening systems
    Yule-Walker equations Accident and emergency medicine


    Zygosity determination


    The first duty of the Editors-in-Chief of a work as ambitious as the Encyclopedia of Biostatistics is to define its scope and to explain its purpose. What is it about, and why is it needed?

    The scope is easily defined. We use the term "Biostatistics" to denote statistical methods in medicine and the health sciences. This usage is standard in many, if not most, parts of the world, but of course it is etymologically curious: we make no attempt to cover systematically the more general use of the statistics in biology, for which the term "Biometry" is perhaps now more widely used. Our scope might have been defined as "Medical Statistics", a term which we avoided as it is sometimes taken to imply a more restricted field than that represented here. The field of biostatisitcs is indeed wide. We have needed to cover applications in clinical medicine, public health, epidemiology, health services research, demography, genetics, and laboratory studies. We have attempted to provide a very broad coverage of general statistical theory and methodology, which has developed enormously during the last half-century, building on the foundations laid down during the interwar period. Some branches of statistics have been especially stimulated by their applications in medical research, notably the analysis of survival data, which receives especially full treatment in these pages.

    Many of the 1208 articles concern topics that might be relevant in investigations in almost any branch of medicine: the design of experiments and observational studies, the problems associated with data collection, the technical aspects of statistical inference, and so on. We have also included many articles concerning specific fields of medicine, such as Communicable Diseases, Neurology, and Ophthalmology. Many articles describe institutions of particular interest to biostatisticians, such as research organizations, professional societies, and journals. Finally, we include biographical memoirs of many statisticians and others, now deceased, who have contributed notably to the theory and practice of biostatisitcs.

    Why, then, is all this information needed? During the last few decades, the use of statistical methods in medical research has grown more rapidly than in any other field of application. Parallel growth has naturally taken place in the numbers of practitioners, in medical schools, hospitals and medical centers, research establishments, government agencies, pharmaceutical firms, and elsewhere. The technical literature also has grown, so that medical applications assume a prominent role in general statistics journals, specialist journals have been founded, and statistical methods are commonly described in research articles in the medical literature. Books have appeared in large numbers, but these necessarily deal broadly with the simper aspects of the subject, or narrowly with only a part of it. The publishers of this Encyclopedia, and the editorial team, took the view that a comprehensive work was overdue, and that it would fulfill a widely recognized need.

    There are, of course, other relevant large-scale reference works, notably the Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, edited by S. Kotz & N.L. Johnson (Executive Editor C.B. Read), published in 9 Volumes by John Wiley & Sons (1982-1988, with a Supplement Volume in 1989 and Update Volumes currently in the course of publication). This highly important work has served as an inspiration to us, and we have followed many of the design features adopted by its publisher and editors. However, the present Encyclopedia is not intended as in any way a competitor to its forerunner, but should rather be regarded as complementary to it. The Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences (E0SS) provides coverage in considerable depth for virtually the whole theory of statistics and probability, with much detail concerning the methodology of statistical analysis. The Encyclopedia of Biostatistics (E0B) also aims at a wide coverage of general statistical theory, but usually in less depth than the EoSS, and with some emphasis on topics of practical application. Secondly, the EoSS covers applications in virtually every direction, in the physical, biological, and social sciences, so that medical applications form merely one category amongst many. In the EoB we concentrate on the technical and practical aspects of biostatistics in what we believe is a comprehensive way. Thus, the two works overlap in their coverage, but each contains material extending far beyond the scope of the other. For instance, readers of the present work who wish to learn more about some of the more theoretical topics are likely to find the EoSS particularly helpful.

    An earlier predecessor is the International Encyclopedia of Statistics (1978, W.H. Kruskal & J. Tanur, eds, Free Press, New York) based on the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968, D.L. Sill, ed., Macmillan and Free Press, New York). We have made use of various other biographical and lexicographic works, and have found the Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics in the Medical Sciences (1995, B.S. Everitt, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) and the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1981, C.C. Gillispie, Scribner New York) particularly useful.

    When we were approached by the publishers in 1995 we realized that a work of the magnitude that we believed to be required must necessarily be a highly cooperative enterprise. We defined 17 (later increased to 18) sections of the subject, and sought the appointment of one or more Section Editor for each section. The titles of the sections, and the names of the Section Editors, are listed under Editorial Board (pp. v-vii). The sections covered broad types of biostatistical work (clinical trials, epidemiological studies, clinical epidemiology, vital and health statistics, health services research, laboratory studies, biological models, health surveys and biomedical experiments); medical specialities with statistical applications; human genetics (a discipline with an important role in medicine and a long history of statistical input); particular branches of statistical methodology of special biostatistical interest (statistical models, longitudinal data analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis); statistical computing (an essential feature of modern statistical analysis); the general range of statistical theory and methodology, including probability theory; and the institutional and historical topics referred to earlier.

    We have ourselves commissioned a number of articles on topics that were not easily assigned to a particular section. These include articles from leaders in the field, giving an overview, invariably from a personal perspective, of a broad range of scholarly work, such as "Biostatistics, Overview" (B.W. Brown, Jr), "Frontiers of Biostatistics" (L.E. Moses & F. Mosteller), and "Statistics, Overview" (D.R. Cox). Likewise, among the articles commissioned by the Section Editors, there are a number that provide a broad perspective of a particular field, many of them being designated with the word "Overview" in the title. Most of these articles contain cross-references to more specialized articles on related topics, and thus may serve the reader as a guide and introduction to the overall coverage of the Encyclopedia. A list of these review articles appears on pp. xv-xvi.

    The Section Editors were responsible for drafting the list of entries, subject of course to later amendment, for the recruitment of contributors, and for the editing and (with others) proofreading of the contributions. Articles were graded according to intended length and level of mathematical detail, again subject to revision as time went on. Whatever success the Encyclopedia has is largely due to the sustained efforts and enthusiasm of the Section Editors. In addition to the listed Section Editors, initial planning for the section on Vital and Health Statistics, with recruitment of contributors, was undertaken by K.H. Dunnell, M.P. Coleman and A.J. Fox, of the Office of National Statistics, London, UK; and initial planning of the section on Statistical Models was done by Annette J. Dobson, of the University of Newcastle, New South Wales. We are grateful for their help.

    The sections referred to above are ignored in the final presentation of the articles, which is strictly alphabetic. The variety of length and style is obvious. Some of the more theoretical and specialized topics are directed towards the practicing biostatistician, interested in extending his or her command of statistical theory. Other articles deal more directly with practical issues, and have little or not mathematical content. We have aimed to interfere as little as possible with a contributor's individual style, although articles have been reviewed by editors, and occasionally by external referees. Contributors have been encouraged, even in the more mathematical articles, to introduce their topic verbally so that the less mathematical reader can gain some general understanding of it. A few short, unsigned articles have been written by the Editors-in-Chief.

    Most of the articles include a list of citations to the scientific literature. Occasionally the contributors have added also a Bibliography of books or articles not directly cited in the text of the article, but useful for additional reading.

    We have used various forms of cross-reference. Terms leading directly to other articles appear in bold type on their first occurrence in an article; however, very common terms such as "mean" are not always emboldened in this way. Frequently, the wording in the current article may be slightly different from the title of the article referred to, but the intention will normally be quite clear. Thus, "...a crossover trial..." will refer to the article entitled "Crossover Designs". When a direct reference of this sort is not possible, we refer explicitly in parentheses to the intended article; e.g. "...a changeover design (see Crossover Designs)". Sometimes the first word of emboldened terms in the text will not lead directly to the article's location, but this will be indicated clearly by subsequent terms; for example, "... a nested case-control study..." refers to the article entitled "Case-Control Study, Nested". Occasionally, useful additional sources of information, in articles not conveniently referenced in the text, are listed at the end of an article, as "(See also...)".

    Additionally, and importantly, we include in the alphabetic list of entries 1477 terms, cross-referenced to specific articles.

    No work of this sort can be wholly error-free. We and our production colleagues have tried to eliminate as many errors as possible. We should greatly appreciate notification of any remaining errors - technical, factual, or typographic - which we may be able to remove in future versions of this project.

    Our predominant impression, on coming to the end of this collaborative effort, is of the unfailing enthusiasm and good nature of everyone involved. We have mentioned our debt to the Section Editors. Contributors also have responded to our cajoling with good humor, and have been willing, when asked, to modify their original intentions to comply with the overall plan. The project was initiated by Helen Ramsey, of John Wiley & Sons, and that she has been able to see her vision made manifest within a little over three years is in very large measure due to her assiduity, tact, and clear sense of direction. We are grateful to her, and to many of her colleagues at Chichester, notably Juliet Booker and Sharon Clutton, for helping to guide our progress throughout the various stages of the project, and tactfully keeping us up to schedule. We should like to acknowledge the generous support from John Wiley & Sons throughout our work on this project. From the outset, our publishers have supported technical computer and communication activities, and clerical administrative needs, and have also provided funding for several of our meetings as Editors-in-Chief as well as our meetings with the Section Editors.

    Our thanks are given to Suzanne Thompson, of Boston University, who assisted most ably with file-management throughout the project. We thank also David Gagnon, of Boston University, who was extremely helpful in developing the computerization of entries, which proved invaluable in the management of the project and in providing a basis for the system of cross-referencing. John and Celia Hall joined the project as Managing Editors and have played a major part also in distributing, correcting, and collating proofs. The Section Editors received valuable help from many individuals; in particular they would like to thank Diane Ames, LeiLane D'Agostino, Leslie Powers, Heidy Kwan Russell, Denise Tanner, and Liza Thong.

    For our part, we have greatly enjoyed our role in this remarkable enterprise. We have learnt much from the articles that we have read and edited, and our knowledge of the field has greatly increased over these past three years. Clearly, the amount of material we have read is far beyond our powers of retention, so we can make no claim to have achieved an encyclopedic knowledge of biostatistics. We have, however, obtained a good grasp of where to find information on virtually any aspect of our field in the Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. We hope that readers who become familiar with these volumes will similarly attain this ability. That we have been able to devote so much time to the Encyclopedia is a tribute most of all to the patience and understanding cooperation of our wives, Phyllis Armitage and Carolyn Colton, and, indirectly, that of our families. To them, as to our technical colleagues, we offer our deep thanks.

    Peter Armitage
    Wallingford, UK

    Theodore Colton
    Boston, USA



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