Part III: Physical Agents
- Industrial Noise and Conservation of Hearing
- Nonionizing Radiation
- Ionizing Radiation
- Heat Stress; Its Effects, Measurement and Control
- Physiological Effects of Altered Barometric Pressure
- Lighting for Seeing and Health
- Safety and Health Effects of Visual Display Terminals
- Recognition and Assessment of Exposures to Microorganisms, Biotoxins, and Biogenic Organisms
Part IV: Biohazards
Part V: Engineering Control and Personal Protection
- Potential Exposures in the Manufacturing IndustryTheir Recognition and Control
- Philosophy and Management of Engineering Control
- Industrial Hygiene Engineering Control
- The Emission Inventory and Dilution Ventilation
- Respiratory Protection Devices
- Asbestos Management in Buildings
Part VI: Law, Regulation, and Management
- Job Safety and Health Law
- Compliance and Projection
- Industrial Hygienist's Liability Under Law
- Litigation in Industrial Hygiene Practice
- OdorLegal Overview
- Hazard Communication and Worker Right to Know Programs
- Pharmacokinetics and Unusual Work Schedules
- Exposure Standards and Guidelines for Chemical Agents
- Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Industrial Chemicals
- Integrated Loss Prevention and Control Management
- Industrial Hygiene Surveys, Records and Reports
- Data Automation
- Risk Analysis in Industrial Hygiene
- Health Surveillance Programs in Industry
- Health Promotion in the Workplace
- Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems
- Business Analysis Techniques in Industrial Hygiene
- Industrial Hygiene Education, Training, and Information Exchange
Part VII: Specialty Areas and Allied Professions
- Statistical Design and Data Analysis
- Occupational Health Nursing
- Safety Interfaces, Profession and Practice
- Fire and Explosion Hazards of Combustible Gases, Vapors and Dusts
- Environmental Control in the Workplace: Water, Food, Wastes, Rodents
- Air Pollution
- Air Pollution Controls
- Agricultural Hygiene
- Hazardous Wastes
- Industrial Hygiene Aspects of Hazardous Materials, Emergencies and Cleanup Operations
- Health and Safety Factors in Designing and Industrial Hygiene Laboratory
- Occupational Epidemiology
- Indoor Air Quality in Nonindustrial Occupational Environments
- Role of the Industrial Hygiene Consultant
- Industrial Hygiene Abroad
Industrial hygiene is an applied science and a profession. Like other applied sciences such as medicine and engineering, it is founded on basic sciences such as biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. In a sense it is a hybrid profession because within its ranks are members of other professions - chemists, engineers, biologists, physicists, physicians, nurses and lawyers. In their professional practice all are dedicated in one way or another to the purposes of industrial hygiene, to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of work-realted health hazards. All are represented among the authors of chapters in these volumes.
Although the term "industrial hygiene" used to describe our profession is probably of twentieth century origin, we must go further back in history for the origin of its words. The word "industry," which has a dictionary meaning, "systematic labor for some useful purpose or the creation of something of value," has its English origin in the fifteenth century. For "hygiene" we must look even earlier. Hygieia, a daughter of Aesklepios who is god of medicine in Greek mythology, was responsible for the preservation of health and prevention of disease. Thus, Hygieia, when she was dealing with people who were engaged in systematic labor for some useful purpose, was practicing our profession, industrial hygiene.
Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology was originated by Frank A. Patty with publication of the first single volume in 1948. In 1958 an updated and expanded Second Edition was published with his guidance. A second Volume, Toxicology, was published in 1963. Frank Patty was a pioneer in industrial hygiene; he was a teacher, practitioner, and manager. He served in 1946 as eighth President of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. To cap his professional career, he served as Director of the Division of Industrial Hygiene for the General Motors Corporation.
At the request of Frank Patty, George and Florence Clayton took over editorship of the ever-expanding Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology
series for the Third Edition of Volume I, General Principles was published in 1978, and Volume II, Toxicology was published in 1981-1982. The First Edition of Volume III, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice, edited by Lewis and Lester Cralley was published in 1979 with its Second Edition published in 1984. The ten-book, two-volume Fourth Edition of Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, edited by George and Florence Clayton was published in 1991-1994, and the Third Edition of Volume III, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice, edited by Robert Harris, Lewis Cralley, and Lester Cralley, was published in 1994. With the agreement and support of George and Florence Clayton, and Lewis and Lester Cralley, it is a signal honor for me to follow them and Frank A. Patty as editor of the Industrial Hygiene volumes of Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology.
Industrial hygiene has been dealt with very broadly in past editions of Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Chapters have been offered on sampling and analysis, exposure measurement and interpretation, absorption and elimination of toxic materials, occupational dermatoses, instrument calibration, odors, industrial noise, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, heat stress, pressure, lighting, control of exposures, safety and health law, health surveillance, occupational health nursing, ergonomics and safety, agricultural hygiene, hazardous wastes, occupational epidemiology, and other vital areas of practice. These traditional areas continue to be covered in this new edition. Consistent with the past history of Patty's, new areas of industrial hygiene concerns and practices have been addressed as well: aerosol science, computed tomography, multiple chemical sensitivity, potential endocrine disruptors, biological monitoring of exposures, health and safety management systems, industrial hygiene education, and other areas not covered in earlier editions.
Although industrial hygiene has been practiced in one guise or another for centuries, the most systematic approaches and the most esoteric accomplishments have been made in the past fifty or sixty yearsgenerally in the years since Frank Patty published his first book. This accelerated progress is due primarily to increased public awareness of occupational health and safety issues and need for environmental control as is evidenced by Occupational Safety and Health, Clean Air, and Clean Water legislation at both federal and state levels.
Industrial hygienists know that variability is the key to measurement and interpretation of workers' exposures. If exposures did not vary, exposure assessment could be limited to a single measurement, the results of which could be acted upon, then the matter filed away as something of no further concern. We know, however, that exposures change. But not only do exposures changechange is characteristic of the science and practice of our profession as well. We must be alert to recognize new hazards, we must continue to evaluate new and changing stresses, we must evaluate performance of exposure controls and from time to time upgrade them. These volumes represent the theory and practice of industrial hygiene as they are understood by their chapter authors at the time of writing. But, as observed by the Greek philosopher Heracleitus about 2500 years ago, "There is nothing permanent except change." Improvements and changes in theory and practice of industrial hygiene take place continuously and are generally reported in the professional literature. Industrial hygienists, the practitioners, the teachers, and the managers, must stay abreast of the professional literature. Furthermore, when an industrial hygienist develops new knowledge, he/she has what almost amounts to an ethical obligation to share it in our journals.
One cannot ponder the rapid changes and advancements made in recent decades in science and technology, and in our own profession as well, without wondering what the next two or three decades will bring. Developments in computer technology and information processing and exchange (this Edition of Patty's will be offered in CD-ROM) have greatly influenced manufacturing (robotics, computer controlled machining) and the general conduct of commerce and business in the past one or two decades. This change will only accelerate with computer speeds and capacities doubling every 18 months or so, and processing units approaching micro size. The possibility for continuously monitoring and computer storage of exposures of individual workers may become reality within the next decade. The human genome project holds promise for prevention and cure of many diseases, including some associated with conditions of work. World population continues to increase geometrically and is expected to be about eight billion in the year 2020; with improvements in preventive health care this will be an increasingly older population. Genetic engineering and highly effective pesticides are already improving yields of agricultural commodities; if all goes well in this area, and if we can avoid set-backs as might be associated with potential endocrine disruptors, feeding the expanding human population may not be a limiting factor. Globalization of manufacturing and commerce has already begun to reduce manufacturing employment in the United States and in Europe, and to expand opportunities for expanding populations in some developing nations. The United Sates and other developed nations are on their way to becoming world centers of information and innovation.
How will all of this affect the future practice of industrial hygiene? In the Preface to the Fourth Edition of Patty's, George and Florence Clayton suggested that the future of industrial hygiene is limited only by the narrowness of vision of its practitioners. More recently, Lawrence Birkner, past president of the American Academy of Industrial Hygiene, and his co-worker and spouse, Ruth McIntyre Birkner, in writing about the future of the occupational and environmental hygiene profession, say much the same thing. (See "The Future of the Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Profession" in A.I.H.A. Journal, pp.370-374, 1997). Larry and Ruth report that we must be aware of the changes likely to take place in the next couple of decades, and must develop strategies now to assure the profession's full participation in protecting the health and safety of workers, and the environment, of tomorrow.
Robert L. Harris
Raleigh, North Carolina
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